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 la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte

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MessageSujet: la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte   Mer 8 Sep 2010 - 6:32

Citation :
New Call for Election Boycott in Egypt

CAIRO — One of Egypt’s most prominent opposition leaders, the Nobel laureate Mohamed ElBaradei, has issued the strongest call so far for a blanket opposition boycott of parliamentary elections this fall.

“If nobody but the national party runs, then the regime will have to give in to us,” Dr. ElBaradei said to a gathering of mostly young supporters on Monday evening in Cairo, in his first political appearance in about two months. The latest posting on his Twitter page reads: “Total boycott of elections & signing petition R first steps 2 unmask sham ‘democracy.’ Participation wld. be contrary to the national will.”

But Egypt’s severely divided opposition groups have been deliberating over a possible boycott for months, and it remains uncertain how Dr. ElBaradei’s call will influence them. The Muslim Brotherhood, the Islamic political group that, though banned, is the country’s single strongest opposition group, has also been mulling a boycott. No group wants to be the first to say it will sit out the election for fear that rivals will take advantage of the political elbow room.

Despite only sporadic engagement with the country’s political scene, Dr. ElBaradei carries considerable weight. Since he returned to Egypt in February after 12 years as the head of the International Atomic Energy Agency, he has been seen by disillusioned Egyptians as a symbol of change and by many more as the most serious challenger to President Hosni Mubarak’s 29-year hold on power.

While some members of the opposition have expressed a degree of disillusionment over what they describe as Dr. ElBaradei’s failure to embrace the cause of political reform and become fully immersed in the drudgery of Egyptian politics, his occasional appearances and announcements continue to garner much support and inject energy into a remarkably unorganized opposition.

Mr. Mubarak, who turned 82 this year and has been in a delicate state of health since undergoing surgery in March, has not announced if he plans to run for re-election next year. The uncertainty has triggered speculation over the future and supported the possibility that Mr. Mubarak’s son, Gamal, is being groomed to succeed his father.

Dr. ElBaradei has said he will run for president if constitutional reforms make it possible; his campaign for those changes has brought together some of the secular opposition, as well as the Muslim Brotherhood.

Under the current constitutional framework, Dr. ElBaradei would need at least 250 signatures from Egypt’s lower and upper houses and municipal councils, all of which are overwhelmingly dominated by the ruling party. Mr. Mubarak introduced an amendment that was passed in 2007 that abolished full judiciary supervision over elections, which had served as a minimum guarantee for cleaner elections.

“They always say that I must abide by laws and constitutions,” Dr. ElBaradei said Monday night, to loud applause. “I know what is in laws and in constitutions, but what we have here in Egypt is neither laws nor constitution!”

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/08/world/middleeast/08egypt.html?_r=1

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MessageSujet: Re: la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte   Jeu 9 Sep 2010 - 22:09

Intéressant, je connais pas très bien se moment de l'histoire Égyptiennes !!!


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MessageSujet: Re: la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte   Jeu 23 Sep 2010 - 18:31

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After Mubarak: Egypt and the Succession Issue
Introduction
All eyes are turning towards Egypt and who will succeed Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Concerns over the President's health have increased since his gallbladder was removed in an operation in Germany in March 2010. The Popular Coalition for Supporting Gamal Mubarak launched a campaign to promote the nomination of the president's son in next year's elections. But millions of Egyptians have been wondering about the real force behind the movement. Last month marked the beginning of efforts to enhance the younger Mubarak's reputation by coalition members, who plastered tens of thousands of posters of his image with slogans urging the 47-year-old to follow in his father's footsteps. Observers, however, have noted that security forces have allowed the posters to stand, though the rules say campaigning cannot begin until shortly before the elections themselves, which are not until next year. It is significant to examine and estimate all candidates and Egypt’s post Hosni Mubarak rule and policy.

Mubarak has never appointed a vice president, and there is no political figure of comparable stature who stands out as an election possibility. Who succeeds him likely depends largely on the decision by Mubarak himself (unless he passes away suddenly), along with top figures within the ruling party, the military and the security forces. Ruling party candidates are virtually assured of victory in elections, which are usually plagued by reports of widespread vote fraud. Two elections are nearing in Egypt – the upcoming parliamentary elections in December 2010 and the presidential elections in September 2011. While visiting Italy in May, Mubarak deflected a question about the presidential elections and addressed the issue of succession by saying that “only God knows who will be my successor.”

Gamal’s Possibilities and Other Contenders
There are suggestions that a number of businessmen-politicians within the National Democratic Party (NDP) are keen on installing Gamal Mubarak as the next president because his financial ideology serves their personal interests. Gamal Mubarak is the deputy head of the party and leads its influential Policies Committee, directing Egypt's economic liberalization program. His core support comes from wealthy businessmen. But there is one important point-- Gamal, who did not rise through the ranks of the military like his father and previous presidents, would have less of a chance without his father's support and support from other key Egyptian constituencies such as the Egyptian military brass; an act that made the succession issue in Syria moot. It should be noted here that the Syrian Baath regime, like Egypt run by the military brass, was the first to implement a successful succession from father, Hafez Assad, to son, Bashar Assad. However, in Syria’s case, Assad senior brought his son from medical school in London and enrolled him in the Army and saw him rise through the ranks for several years before Bashar became president right after his father’s passing in 2000. Ever since that time leaders of several Arab republics ruled by former generals with the assistance of top military brass have contemplated repeating the Syrian experience. Pan-Arab media have written about alleged plans by the presidents of Yemen, Libya and Egypt to pass on the presidency to their sons. Until recently, talk about Gamal’s presidential aspirations were dubbed as rumors by Egyptian authorities and even denied by Gamal himself. Now it is almost official.

Former UN nuclear watchdog chief Mohammed ElBaradei returned to Egypt to possibly run in a presidential campaign. The Nobel prize laureate’s homecoming to the country earlier this year sought to push for constitutional change. He says he will run in elections only if the constitution, which restricts independent nominations, is amended. But he faces an uneven competition. Despite popular disaffection with the government, the country's opposition is weak and divided. Some state-controlled papers have already set about attacking ElBaradei’s possible candidacy. These efforts included frequent images juxtaposing him with US Ambassador Margaret Scobey – images aimed at discrediting him as a tool of foreign powers. Attacking ElBaradei from the other direction, Al- Ahram’s Abdel Moneim Said Aly wrote an editorial suggesting ElBaradei has fallen in line with marginal figures who want to “wage war on Israel.”

The limitations on ElBaradei have been plentiful, and as he is an independent who belongs to no officially recognized party, his continued stay on the public scene has tested the boundaries of the Egyptian regime. Discussing the issue of allowing the potential presidential candidate to make an appearance on state-run television, Information Minister Anas el-Feki said the candidate could appear if he had something important enough to say, but added that ElBaradei was a “romantic dreamer who has not presented a manifesto which would help solve Egypt’s problems,” explaining that his lack of a political party endorsement gave ElBaradei no legitimacy. In addition, while ElBaradei’s camp has formed loose political associations with other opposition factions, these groups face organizational problems and agree about little, making it more than likely that they will go the route of other umbrella groups such as Kefaya, experiencing serious rifts along the way.

Other than Gamal, there is the possibility that the director of Egypt’s Intelligence Services, Omar Suleiman, will step forward to succeed Mubarak. General Suleiman has a long record of close cooperation with the West, and his portfolio of handling key security and diplomatic issues – including Gaza and Israeli-Palestinian talks – suggests that he indeed carries weight in the president’s circle.

While all opposition parties face crucial limitations, Egypt’s most formidable Islamist opposition group – the Muslim Brotherhood – faces particularly fundamental restrictions imposed by the NDP and the security services.

After a surprise win of 88 seats in the 2005 parliamentary elections, the party has suffered from repeated governmental crackdowns, rendering the group almost powerless, except for occasional protests and blog posts. The party candidates, who generally try to pursue power through democratic avenues, must run as independents, and, with other limitations in place, they failed to gain seats in June’s elections. Despite the growing religious fervor, most people do not expect the Brotherhood to gain more seats in the coming People’s Assembly elections, and the tight security restrictions placed on them mean that they are not likely to be given the opportunity to rise once Mubarak is no longer in office. Recently, members of the Brotherhood have been quoted frequently in the local press attacking the idea of Gamal succeeding his father, indicating that the poor relationship between the father and the opposition group may not change under the son. An editorial writer in the independent Al-Masry Al-Youm newspaper wrote recently that the scare of an Egypt led by the Muslim Brotherhood turning into an Iran-like rogue state is outlandish, aptly assessing that the problem the country faces is not that it will take an extremist turn, but rather that it will “choose the path of least resistance and just muddle along.”

Why Gamal May Fail
There are specific arguments why Gamal Mubarak might not win the presidency. First: The military and state security establishment doesn’t see him as one of their own and subsequently would have little trust in him to look after their interests. Flush with money and connections from his business empire, Gamal is perceived by the military as a Western economic tiger bent on transforming Egypt to a market economy in which they will likely be deprived of their governmental patronage machine and perks. Gamal had tried to win over support of the military and intelligence officials by establishing joint-ventures with them, making them part of his business empire and giving them a taste of things to come when he becomes president. But many observers doubt this would be enough to win over all the top brass. Second; Egypt’s democratic opposition forces seem adamant on derailing Gamal Mubarak’s rise to the presidency. They want to establish a true representative government. As both the symbol and substance of his father’s dictatorship, stopping Gamal Mubarak brings added legitimacy to the opposition forces cause within Egypt and internationally. The opposition have been using the new media effectively to rally public support and organize demonstrations. If this continues the opposition could trigger a large wave of riots after the passing of Mubarak in order to prevent succession and possibly instate a new government system. Third: Gamal Mubarak does not project well amongst the masses in Egypt. Many see him as the font of corruption, greed and dynasty. Gamal’s election would not only antagonize the overwhelming majority of Egyptian society but strengthen the Muslim Brotherhood’s already considerable popularity as the Islamic alternative to authoritarian rule. Ironically, the convergence of interests between Egypt’s opposition forces and the military-security elite to neutralize Gamal Mubarak could lead to an unusual but tentative power sharing arrangement — one that could avert a bloody resolution of the succession crisis. Under other transition scenarios, General Suleiman will take Mubarak’s place as a caretaker until Gamal gains more experience and bolsters his credentials with Egypt’s security and military apparatus.

If it does not show true public willingness to support Gamal Mubarak for President the military-state security establishment would likely move towards a two-track strategy to end the succession crisis; uniting behind Omar Suleiman as their presidential candidate while calculating the concessions it must make to the opposition forces to preserve relative peace. In backing Omar Suleiman the military establishment seeks to get 'one of their own' elected as President without resorting to a coup to maintain power. Carrying out a 'democratic' election to coronate a new leader will also make it easier for the United States and Europe to justify their support for Egypt’s 'managed democracy.'

Conclusion
At the age of 82, rumors of Mubarak’s failing health have persisted. Mubarak has ruled the country since the assassination of President Anwar Sadat in 1981, and approaching the end of his fifth consecutive presidential term has been an almost permanent fixture in the modern Egyptian state. Whether Mubarak dies this year or during another six-year term as president, change is inevitable and the speculative scenarios that follow are many. While many observers assume that Egypt’s domestic politics will experience deep changes after Mubarak’s death, other observers guess – and many in Israel worry – that Egypt’s international alliances could also shift in a post- Mubarak era.

If Gamal is not ready and does not have the full endorsement of the top military brass, the old guard of security and military men in Egypt still remains strong and will choose accordingly. The likely choice would be Suleiman, who has served as chief of Egyptian General Intelligence Services since 1993. Called 'one of the world’s most powerful spy chiefs', Suleiman’s possesses an in depth understanding of the region’s complex political landscape. A known quantity at the Pentagon, the CIA and State Department, Suleiman is also well respected in Israel, Jordan and Saudi Arabia — America’s most critical Middle Eastern allies. As the Obama administration struggles to restart Palestinian-Israeli peace talks and strengthen its anti-Iran coalition in the Middle East Suleiman’s diplomatic and intelligence background could prove to be a valuable asset.

Crucial foreign backers such as the United States, which underwrites much of Egypt's foreign aid, will also be hoping for a stable transition and powerful president. Egypt is a key US ally in the tumultuous Middle East, and widespread dissatisfaction with government policy and the rich-poor divide are just two factors that could contribute to instability in a country of 80 million.

A takeover by the Muslim Brotherhood would be a nightmare for the U.S. and Israel. Imagine the most populous regional state with the largest, best-equipped and -trained Arab army in the hands of this radical Islamist organization. Would Egypt abrogate the peace treaty with Israel and conceivably even rejoin the conflict? Would Egypt be able to sit out a future round between Hezbollah and Israel?....A Muslim Brotherhood takeover in Egypt, along with the general rise of radical players in the region (Iran, Hezbollah and Hamas), would have negative ramifications for stability of some Western-backed Arab Gulf States.

Rarely has there been a regional issue of such importance for the United States and Israel about which they can do so little. Neither has a successful record of intervening in Arab politics, and any overt attempts to influence events might further undermine Gamal Mubarak, the president’s son; the regime already is tainted by its relations with the U.S. and Israel. The United States already provides Egypt with major foreign aid, and an increase would only have an impact long after the succession, as would a renewal of U.S. democratization efforts. Covert operations could be undertaken to weaken the opposition, but it is extremely unlikely that any external player could do more than Egypt's powerful security apparatus. No realistic external military option exists. If and when Gamal Mubarak or some other moderate takes over, it will be important for the United States and Israel to help solidify his rule by affording him some early successes, but both will be highly constrained.
http://www.inegma.com/?navigation=reports (institute for near east & gulf military analysis)

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MessageSujet: Re: la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte   Ven 24 Sep 2010 - 19:02

enfin, l'Égypte va changer de régime.... en espérant que ce pays aie un régime qui ne soit pas a la bote des USA et des Sionistes !!!!
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MessageSujet: Re: la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte   Ven 24 Sep 2010 - 19:41

snak-boss a écrit:
enfin, l'Égypte va changer de régime.... en espérant que ce pays aie un régime qui ne soit pas a la bote des USA et des Sionistes !!!!


et j'ajoute" ni baathiste,ni islamiste,ni pro saudite mais plutot pro peuple egyptiens ,democratiques avec le respect des regles de la loi."
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MessageSujet: Re: la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte   Ven 24 Sep 2010 - 19:53

c'est bien de réver en fait ...

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MessageSujet: Re: la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte   Ven 24 Sep 2010 - 20:04

développe fremo développe ! la chute du régime du Shah a aussi été une utopie

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MessageSujet: Re: la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte   Ven 24 Sep 2010 - 21:17

du fait de lu placement trés important de l'Egypte, il n'est pas question que n'importe quel puissance laisse ce changement du régime passe comme ca ... le futur président doit respecter l'agenda politique egyptienne actuelle !
Moubarak semble avoir eu des garantis de la part des américains que son fils accédera en "trône" sans aucun soucis, je ne sais pas si tu suis un peu les actualités de la société egyptienne, mais il y avait quelque temps, des mouvements dans tous le pays, ont commençé à publier des affiches appellant à voter pour le Moubarak junior !!

Il n'est pas question de comparer la situation en Egypte avec la situation de l'Ex-Empire Iranienne ... Carter a laissé tomber l'Iran et le Shah ... c'était une carte brulé pour eux tout en croyant qu'il pouvait avoir des bonnes relations avec le nouveau régime, ce que s'est pas produit ! je doute qu'ils vont refaire la faute 2 fois

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MessageSujet: Re: la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte   Ven 24 Sep 2010 - 22:19

bon tu es de ceux qui divinisent le pouvoir des Etats-unis dans ce monde, la position géostratégique de l'Iran est de loin plus importante pour les US que l'Egypte, d'abord parce que l'essentiel des importations d'énergie du l'empire américain viennent du golfe persique, en contrôlant cette zone on garantie en même temps d'entraver la route à d'autres puissances de le faire (l'urss à l'époque...)
les américains n'avaient épargné aucun moyen à soutenir le Shah, les américains peuvent très bien controler des petits pays bananiers comme la Géorgie ou Djibouti,mais quand on parle de grands pays en terme de population comme l'Iran, Turquie et L'Egypte c'est pas donné, même une intervention militaire sera hasardeuse, on se rappel de l'intervention britannique française après que Nacer ait décidé de contrôler le Canal de Suez c'était peine perdu, il sera autant difficile de faire tomber tout nouveau régime ayant le soutien populaire qui risque de bouleverser d'un instant à l'autre la dictature de Mobarak
justement en ce qui concerne Gamal Moubarak, il a le soutient du patronat Egyptien vue sa formation et son idéologie ultralibéral, mais cependant il n'a ni le soutient populaire ni encore moins celui de l'institution militaire, les généraux Égyptiens le voient de mauvais oeil et se voient mal se faire commandé par un mome "civil", je te renvoi à l'article que j'ai posté ci-dessus qui explique bien cela, après la mort de Mobarak le père, le fils n'aura plus aucune couverture ou protection des militaires
d'ailleurs déjà le fait que Moubarak a su se maintenir au pouvoir est un cas spécifique à étudier, vue que la pluspart des dictatures militaires sont formés de généraux de l'armée de terre, or qu'il est lui un général de l'armée de l'air, et quand on sait l'amour que partagent les aviateurs et fantassins en général c'est étonnant
j'ai ma petite théorie sur l'avenir politique de l'Egypte, je pense qu'après la mort de Moubarak, l'institution militaire imprégné par l'idéologie Nacerienne voudrait revenir en force sur la scène politique et récupérer le statut de "puissance régionale" auquel l'Egypte a toujours aspiré
pour ce faire, l'armée voudra se redorer le blason, en arrivant à une sorte de compromis avec l'opposition politique, organiser des élections libres, instaurer un nouveau régime "laique" de ce fait accepté par l'occident, une nouvelle formule assez proche de la bonne entente conclu entre les militaires turques et le AK party,

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MessageSujet: Re: la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte   Ven 24 Sep 2010 - 23:06

les américains ont fait tous pour faire revenir le Shah en pouvoir dans les années 50-60, et ils ont fait tous pour le maintenir en pouvoir, mais leur calculs s'avéré faux le moment de la révolution islamique ..." On a laissé tomber le Shah" comme disait ce Carter avec amertume !

concernant l'Egypte, le feuillton sera long apparament, mais quand même, il faut pas attendre à grand chose
Il faut pas oublier que laisser l'Egypte sous ses pieds, garantira la sécurité d'Israél, l'Egypte est un acteur essentiel dans chaque action probable des arabes contre l'Etat Israélienne, il faut pas imaginer une guerre arabo israélienne sans prendre en considération le role de l'Egypte !

déjà en ce moment historique dans le MO, pensez vous qu'on va laissé les egyptiens choisir leur destin eux même

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MessageSujet: Après Moubarak   Mar 16 Aoû 2011 - 7:14

Si on applique le jeu démocratique en Égypte, c'est le nouveau partie, sous couvert des frères musulmans, qui l'emporterait. La Turquie a donné le ton, les autres pays arabes suivront. C'est dur la démocratie!!!
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MessageSujet: Re: la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte   Mar 16 Aoû 2011 - 7:54

med1970 a écrit:
Si on applique le jeu démocratique en Égypte, c'est le nouveau partie, sous couvert des frères musulmans, qui l'emporterait. La Turquie a donné le ton, les autres pays arabes suivront. C'est dur la démocratie!!!
C'est pas aussi sûr, Med, les Frères Musulmans seront classés sûrement premiers, mais pas majoritaires. La scène politique égyptienne est très fragmentée, mais ce que la révolte égyptienne a prouvé sans ambages, c'est que les Frères Musulmans, tout en étant nombreux et bien organisés, sont loin d'emporter les faveurs de la majorité des Égyptiens.
Les Américains poussent vers un gouvernement avec participation des Frères Musulmans, le conservatisme de ces derniers faisant bien l'affaire des premiers, mais il faudrait compter avec les Nassériens, les progressistes et les libéraux. Mais cet éclatement arrange également les Américains.

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MessageSujet: Re: la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte   Mar 16 Aoû 2011 - 17:39

qui te dit que les fréres musulmans veulent prendre le pouvoir maintenant,tous leurs dirigeants affirment qu'ils preferent attendre encore quelques années,ils viennent tout juste d'etre legaliser.moi je verrais bien une alliance entre les militaires et les freres pour diriger l'egypte.dans tous les cas,si vraie democratie il y a au pays des pharaons c'est israel qui sera le plus grand perdant.
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MessageSujet: Re: la chute du Pharaon : changement de régime en Egypte   Mar 16 Aoû 2011 - 20:14

Ça, c'est sûr, les Israéliens se débrouillent toujours pour faire presque l'unanimité contre eux Twisted Evil Des Frères Musulmans aux communistes, en passant par les Nassériens, rares sont ceux en Egypte qui supportent les relations de leur pays avec Israël. A l'exception des libéraux, peut être.

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