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 Armée du Botswana/Botswana Defence Force

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée du Botswana/Botswana Defence Force   Mar 17 Juin 2014 - 14:20


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MessageSujet: Re: Armée du Botswana/Botswana Defence Force   Ven 25 Mar 2016 - 10:26

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée du Botswana/Botswana Defence Force   Ven 25 Mar 2016 - 10:28

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée du Botswana/Botswana Defence Force   Lun 16 Mai 2016 - 17:12

Citation :
Botswana to buy 16 Saab JAS-39C/D Gripen multirole fighters
May 14, 2016





Botswana Defence Force Air Wing to buy 16 Saab JAS-39C/D Gripen multirole fighters. that reported The Business Weekly & Review.

Botswana has selected the Saab Gripen multirole fighter as the Swedish air force signs a contract to upgrade its aircraft. The total cost of the purchase will be from 16 to 18 billion Botswana pula (from 1.45 to US $ 1.63 billion), the delivery should be made within two to three years.

Meanwhile, a spokesman for the Swedish defense procurement agency Försvarets Materielverk (FMV) Linda Bengtsson 13 May 2016 confirmed the negotiations with Botstvanoy the sale of the Gripen fighter, but clarified that it is only about eight aircraft JAS-39C / D.

The Saab JAS 39 Gripen is a light single-engine multirole fighter aircraft manufactured by the Swedish aerospace company Saab. It was designed to replace the Saab 35 Draken and 37 Viggen in the Swedish Air Force . The Gripen has a delta wing and canard configuration with relaxed stability design and fly-by-wire flight controls. It is powered by the Volvo RM12, and has a top speed of Mach 2. Later aircraft are modified for NATO interoperability standards and to undertake in-flight refuelling. There were 186 Gripens in service with military users as of January 2013.




http://defence-blog.com/news/botswana-to-buy-16-saab-jas-39cd-gripen-multirole-fighters.html

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée du Botswana/Botswana Defence Force   Jeu 19 Mai 2016 - 15:00

Citation :
Botswana lines up major defence acquisitions

Jeremy Binnie, London - IHS Jane's Defence Weekly
19 May 2016





Botswana is in negotiations for Saab Gripen multirole fighters and has ordered General Dynamics Piranha armoured vehicles and MBDA air defence systems, according to recent reports.

A spokesperson for Sweden's Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) confirmed on 13 May that it was in talks with Botswana on transferring about eight surplus JAS 39C/D Gripen aircraft.

Botswana's The Business Weekly & Review magazine subsequently reported that a deal had been agreed to buy 16 Gripens for BWP16 billion to BWP18 billion (USD1.4 billion to USD1.6 billion).

But Saab told IHS Jane's on 17 May that, while Botswana remains a key opportunity for the Gripen, any contract "is far from a done deal".

The Botswana Defence Forces (BDF) currently operates Canadair CF-5C/D jets that are at least 40 years old and was previously reported to be interested in acquiring the Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) T-50 Golden Eagle jet trainer or the FA-50 combat version.

A South Korean military delegation visited Botswana in 2013 to promote the aircraft and President Ian Khama held talks with KAI when he visited Seoul in October 2015. South Korea's official Yonhap news agency reported at that time that Botswana's final decision was expected by the end of 2015 after it had considered options in two other countries.

Botswana's The Sunday Standard newspaper reported in February that, in the wake of Khama's visit to South Korea, the BDF was planning to spend BWP2 billion on eight T-50s and was also expected to buy K2 Black Panther tanks from South Korea.

More recently, on 16 May, the newspaper reported that the country was planning to spend nearly BWP2 billion on 45 Piranha 8x8 armoured vehicles made by General Dynamics Switzerland - presumably a reference to General Dynamics European Land Systems Mowag (GDELS-Mowag) - and turrets armed with 30 mm guns.

The BDF already uses Piranha III vehicles, 45 of which were delivered from 2003.

Want to read more? For analysis on this article and access to all our insight content, please enquire about our subscription options ihs.com/contact





http://www.janes.com/article/60468/botswana-lines-up-major-defence-acquisitions





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MessageSujet: Re: Armée du Botswana/Botswana Defence Force   Lun 23 Mai 2016 - 11:51

d’après cet article , il est question de 45 Piranha

Citation :
Botswana buy 45 Piranha armoured wheeled vehicles
May 21, 2016



Ministry of Defence of Botswana has recently ordered 45 Piranha 8×8 armoured vehicles made by General Dynamics Switzerland.

16 May, the Botswana’s The Business Weekly & Review magazine reported that the country was planning to spend nearly BWP2 billion on 45 Piranha 8×8 armoured vehicles made by General Dynamics Switzerland – presumably a reference to General Dynamics European Land Systems Mowag (GDELS-Mowag) – and turrets armed with 30 mm guns.

Botswana already using Piranha III vehicles, 45 of which were delivered from 2003 (according The Military Balance 2013).

Piranha III is a family of armoured wheeled vehicles developed by Mowag Motorwagenfabriken of Switzerland, now part of General Dynamics European Land Combat Systems (ELCS).

Over 8,000 Piranha family vehicles have been ordered and delivered. General Dynamics Land Systems – Canada (formerly General Motors Defense) also produce a version of the Piranha III known as the LAV III. The vehicles are constructed in a 6×6, 8×8 and 10×10 configuration.



http://defence-blog.com/army/botswana-buy-45-piranha-armoured-wheeled-vehicles.html


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MessageSujet: Re: Armée du Botswana/Botswana Defence Force   Sam 11 Juin 2016 - 16:01

Citation :
Botswana President Concerns About Defence Spending
June 10, 2016


The Commander of Botswana Defence Force (BDF) Lieutenant General Gaolathe Galebotswe says President Ian Khama is “concerned and worried” by the army’s off-budget spending.

Appearing before the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) this week, Galebotswe said Khama was always advising the defence minister to explore and establish government-to-government deals than procuring from private entities.

Before the PAC, Galebotswe was pushed into the defensive and justifying the army’s spending habits, as MPs grilled him on whether the BDF was involved in a regional arms race.

BDF spending has come under the spotlight in recent times, particularly this year after the army was allocated a handsome portion of the 2016/17 budget, which is forecast to run at a deficit. Justification for the lion’s share of the budget is that BDF desperately needs to modernise its equipment and infrastructure.

“We are not arms-racing. My worry is that it is only in Botswana where people will raise the red flag on army spending while you do not hear such from other countries. I think we need to educate people.

“President Khama is equally concerned and always suggests that we should at all times try to establish and explore government to government arrangements for better and efficient deals,” he said.

The outgoing commander said army equipment is naturally expensive and takes time to procure, further adding that these challenges could be averted by the establishment of a defence manufacturing industry which Botswana unfortunately does not have.

Galebotswe also revealed that there are instances where the BDF has bought equipment that has quickly become obsolete.

“We used to buy old equipment which would later prove to be expensive to maintain. Sometimes it was just a case of miscalculations but the cases are not that many.”

He blasted those who say the BDF is over-spending in a time of peace, saying Botswana was living in a “VUCA environment”. VUCA is a military acronym dating back to the Cold War, used to describe or reflect on the Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity of general conditions and situations.

“We may at anytime be called to fulfill our international obligations and we will need to be ready. In the army you just never know where your next attacker will come from,” he stressed.

Galebotswe said the BDF had a clear vision of its dreams, but hastened to say these would only be realised with a stable economy.

As reported by Mmegi Online




http://www.african-defense.com/defense-news/botswana-president-concerns-about-defence-spending/



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MessageSujet: Re: Armée du Botswana/Botswana Defence Force   Ven 17 Juin 2016 - 11:49

Citation :
Gripens To Replace Botswana F-5 Fighter Jets
Oscar Nkala, Defense News 4:29 p.m. EDT June 15, 2016


GABORONE, Botswana — The Botswana Defence Force (BDF) has confirmed negotiations with Swedish aircraft manufacturer Försvarets Materielverk (FMV) are underway for the acquisition of between eight and 12 JAS Gripen "C" and "D" aircraft variants to replace its ageing fleet of US-made F-5 fighter jets.

The confirmation was made by BDF commander Lt. Gen. Gaolathe Galebotswe when he appeared before the parliamentary Public Accounts Committee to give evidence on defense spending and the state of the equipment at the disposal of the force.

Galebotswe said in its quest for a replacement to the aging F-5 fleet that the BDF visited aircraft manufacturers in the US, Russia and China before settling on the JAS Gripen.

“The Gripen fits our requirements and could give us a certain edge over our competitors. F-5s have become unsustainable for the BDF. We needed something that is cost-effective but still capable of carrying out our aerial defense mandate because we should have the capability to operate in both contested and uncontested space. I am talking about revitalizing BDF," Galebotswe said.





http://www.defensenews.com/story/defense/international/mideast-africa/2016/06/15/gripens-botswana-f-5-military-equipment/85939750/



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MessageSujet: Re: Armée du Botswana/Botswana Defence Force   Dim 19 Juin 2016 - 19:08

Citation :
19/06/2016

Le Botswana veut remplacer ses CF-5A/B !




Le Botswana exploite une petite flotte de 26 avions de combat de type CF-5A/B « Freedom Fighter » qui appartenait initialement au Canada. Ces appareils ont été acquis, il y a près de 20 ans après une remise à niveau.

Une compétition assez large :

Si, le petit pays africain ne dispose pas de beaucoup de moyens financiers, celui-ci désire acquérir une quinzaine d’avions de 4ème génération neufs ou éventuellement d’occasions. Pour ce faire plusieurs avionneurs sont aujourd’hui en concurrence.

Cette compétition voit s’affronter les appareils suivant : le MiG-29M/M2 de RACMiG, le JF-17 Thunder » fabriqué en collaboration entre le Pakistan et la Chine, le FA-50 du coréen KAI, le F-16C/D Block60 de Lockheed-Martin et le Gripen C/D du suédois Saab.

Avantage au Gripen C suédois :



Il semble que les appareils russes et chinois puissent être mis de côté. Selon le Lt. Gen. Gaolathe Galebotswe, porte-parole de la Force aérienne du Botswana, le Gripen C/D suédois offrirait le meilleur coûts/efficacité de tous les candidats. De plus, en cas de choix, le pays pourrait exploiter l’avion en collaboration avec son grand voisin l’Afrique du Sud.

Une décision d’ici la fin de l’année :

Toujours selon le porte-parole de la Force aérienne, une décision pourrait être rendue d’ici la fin de cette année. Si l’avion suédois semble avoir une certaine préférence, le F-16 et le FA-50 sont eux aussi toujours dans la course.

Photos 1 CF-5A du Botswana @ FAB 2 Gripen C suédois

http://psk.blog.24heures.ch/archive/2016/06/19/le-botswana-veut-remplacer-ses-cf-5a-b-861632.html
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MessageSujet: Re: Armée du Botswana/Botswana Defence Force   Mer 13 Juil 2016 - 12:10

Citation :
Botswana Defence Force Flap Over Donated US Uniforms
July 11, 2016 54
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The Botswana Defence Force (BDF) is embroiled in a bitter dispute over the used United States of America (USA) army uniform which was recently donated to them by the super power army.

The matter is so serious that BDF’s management recently took a taxing and unpopular decision to recall the uniform from members without disclosing to them why the uniform was being recalled.

The camouflage uniform which comprised of bags, light green t-shirts with camouflaged sleeves, googles among other materials was a covert deal between the BDF and the US army.

While most of the BDF members are clueless as to why the uniform was recalled before they could even wear it, sources say the army leaders are at war over how the uniform exchange deal between the BDF and the US army went.

It is understood that the leadership is accusing each other of corruption, serious malpractices and flouting of known legal instruments guiding procurement and disposal of items among others.

Efforts to establish what exactly transpired proved futile, thanks to the army’s covert operations and practices.

Donating military uniforms from the US army, which changes uniform from time to time, is a common practice. In 2008 the US army Department of Defence, among other instruments issued a ‘Disposition Policy for US Military Combat Uniforms’ to guide usage and disposition of used army uniform.

It is not clear how the Americans have taken the matter but sources say they have left the BDF to deal with the matter and revert to them.

In response to Mmegi questions the US embassy did not help to clarify the issue but said they do not have anything to say on the matter.

“Thank you for your enquiry. We do not have any information to share on this topic,” responded Ephraim Keoreng, the Embassy’s information specialist.

The Embassy was asked to provide clarity and share the details of the donation and to share whether they are aware that the uniform was distributed and later recalled from the soldiers. The BDF’s only comment was that it adheres to set legal instruments guiding procurement and disposal of items.

“We acknowledge receipt of your enquiry where you allege that the Botswana Defence Force recently distributed uniform to its members and later collected it back. Botswana Defence Force adheres to set legal instruments guiding procuremnt and disposal of items.

That notwithstanding, issuance and withdrawal of uniform to include its origins and what happens to it as a means of disposal are purely administrative and internal,” responded BDF’s director of protocol and public affairs colonel Tebo Dikole.

The army was asked to provide clarity as to why the uniform was withdrawn and what will happen to the uniform henceforth. Some army members say it also did not comform to Botswana’s army style in terms of placement of badges.

As reported by Tefo Pheage for Mmegi Online


http://www.african-defense.com/defense-news/botswana-defence-force-flap-over-donated-us-uniforms/






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MessageSujet: Re: Armée du Botswana/Botswana Defence Force   Sam 10 Sep 2016 - 15:34

Citation :
Women in Botswana Defence Force
September 6, 2016 56
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Since inception in 1977, the Botswana Defence Force (BDF) has been a males-only-club. That was up until in 2007, when women were introduced and reintegrated into the army. While the move to un-gender the BDF has been hailed as the best thing that ever happened to the army, the reality is that the move has also brought with it the greatest challenges within our small force,

It was the retired Commander, Tebogo Masire who took a bold decision nine years ago to introduce women into the army following persistent and perennial calls by some legislators and commentators. In a small and young defence force like Botswana’s, women only make about less than 10% and rank from as high as position Captain to the lowest rank of Private.

In a patriarchal society like ours, women have often fallen victim to marginalisation, inequality, abuse, and are portrayed as second-class citizens by the social and political systems of their own countries and army women in Botswana are not an exception.

In various random interviews with Mmegi, a sizable number of BDF servicewomen from various ranks expressed contentment of the army lifestyle but pointed out a few reservations.

From the covert and un-attributable interviews for fear of reprisal, army women thanked their male counterparts for a warm welcome but said the only thing that makes life difficult within the barracks is the confusing fraternisation policy, having to decline seniors’ advancements and proposals as well as a non-performance-based promotion system which they say stifles women representation in higher decision-making ranks. This they say, as shown on different occasions means that women’s development and interests will always remain at the backseat within the BDF.

South Africa, which has been recruiting female troops since it started restructuring its security forces in the mid-1990s, has recently increased its quota to almost 50 per cent. After a ‘gender mainstreaming’ audit highlighted shortcomings at the command levels of the South African National Defence Force, eight female brigadier generals were appointed in 2007. The BDF service women occupy only four ranks from Private, 2nd lieutenant, Lieutenant and Captain – a clear six long, hard-to-earn and courses-based stages away from the top post. Without hard work and long-service, servicewomen will have to rely on a miracle to reach the decision-making stages to have their voices heard.



Sexual abuses and the Chain of Command

Extensive evidence shows that sexual violence against women is a pervasive problem within the BDF as is with many other militaries. Despite this, only a small fraction of cases are reported by those who dare to ignore the ‘don’t rock the boat’ culture of the military, leaving the rest pushed to and beyond the limits of their substantial emotional and physical resilience.

Servicewomen are particularly vulnerable to abuse due to geographical isolation from family and friends, and the potential for social isolation within the military culture. But why is it difficult to bring the perpetrators to book? The army is run by what is known as the chain of command and many ascribe rampant sexual abuse of servicewomen to this hierarchical system of reporting. The system means that a victim’s commanding officer can temper with justice at any stage by diverting and stopping an investigation, reducing a sentence or even setting aside a conviction. Since the introduction of women in the army across the world, statistics show that the greatest wars for army women are not fought outside the barracks with enemies but within, with fellow servicemen.

Official department of Defence figures in the US, the most transparent army in the world, show that out of 3,158 reported sexual assault cases in 2010, only 21% went to trial. Of those, only half were convicted. The stats paint a shocking picture of an extensive and stubborn cover-up culture in the military.

Although the figures are not as clear as in the US, in the UK, 2014 armed forces attitude survey showed one in 10 respondents had reported discrimination, harassment or bullying. The UK media is replete with several high profile cases of sexual innuendos involving powerless female officers and their omnipotent male seniors. Botswana‘s army structures and cultures are largely inspired by these two great forces who have been by our side since BDF establishment taking us through baby steps. In fact, the BDF from the beginning adopted many customs, traditions, and largely, an Act that is similar to the British, The Queens Regulations – British Armed Forces.

While many may wonder what these form of abuses breed, studies have found that military sexual assault contributes more strongly to developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than combat-related stress, and that those assaulted sexually suffer more PTSD than those with other trauma.

But what can be done to shield the vulnerable servicewomen against their dominant males?

All over the world armies have what is called fraternisation policy. Fraternisation in the military relates to prohibited personal relationships between military service members of different ranks and positions. It involves improper relationships, ranging from overly casual relationships to friendships to romantic relationships. When fraternisation occurs between officers and enlisted service members or between some other hierarchical pairing, as between a commander and an officer or enlisted soldier in her command, it can potentially undermine the chain of command, order, and discipline. Most armies have however relegated these policy documents to the dusty shelves. In the UK, Labour MP Madeleine Moon is calling for an armed forces ombudsman to adjudicate on internal complaints, so an impartial figure can deal with sexual abuses, harassment and rape cases. This however is yet to happen. Other advocates and analysts propose that sexual assault allegations be removed from the chain of command to ensure investigations and trials are conducted fairly. England and Canada have already done so in their militaries.

Former legislator, Tebelelo Seretse who is credited for her passionate and tireless advocacy for women enrolment in her days as a legislator told Mmegi in a brief interview that while the BDF is a force in transit, a lot needs to be done to empower women in the army. “The BDF must not bask on the this greatest achievement to enroll women and neglect their progress and development. For a democracy that we are, we also believe in participatory democracy, while an army is naturally not a democracy, my view is that we need women in higher decision-making positions in the army to neutralise their male counterparts and represent themselves,” she said.

She continued: “Women have the potential and should be reflected in the army’s top hierarchy to show that they have indeed been enrolled. We cannot just have them there, they need to have a say and partake in the direction that the BDF takes rather than being consumers of male-dominated commands,” she said further adding that perhaps we need affirmative action to elevate them to distant ranks.



BDF hints on soldier’s hook-up tricks

The higher male to female ratios in the BDF as well as the fraternisation rules heaps stress of social isolation for females. This pressure and isolation overwhelm female soldiers and cause them to become involved with males of higher rank.

This is acerbated by the fact that BDF is a small army with limited resources having resorted to rely on integrated training due to the unaffordable costs of separation.

A source within the army says forget fraternisation policies, the reality is that just as people elsewhere can date amongst themselves at work, the BDF is not an exception. The only difference is that soldiers do it in a smart way.

In his thesis, titled ‘Expanding the shield and facing the challenges: integration of women in BDF,’ the creator of the BDF’s fraternisation policy, Major General Mpho Mophuting warns that servicewomen can get lonely in a new place with no friends and no family, and you may find that the enlisted crewmen are the only ones around in your spare time.

“When you’re in a situation like this, it’s hard to understand why you shouldn’t get too friendly with crewmen. Or perhaps you understand, but your own mental well-being you feel you have to make friends with someone,” he says.

Technically, fraternisation, he adds, refers to senior-subordinate relationship, but generally, it is viewed as involving male-female relationships. Service members, he admits, find fraternisation policies confusing and often misunderstand them.

The BDF ‘s women policy document on fraternisation warns on tactics often employed by soldiers to lure others to bed and warns on that. In listing types of the tricks often employed by the army servicemen and women in luring their counterparts to bed, the army policy document says that is often done through verbal, non-verbal and physical contact.

On verbal tactics, the BDF says it is often through “telling sexual jokes, using sexually explicit profanity, threats, sexually oriented Jody calls, sexual comments, whistling in a sexually suggestive manner, describing certain sexual attributes about one’s physical appearance.”

On non-verbal cues, the BDF says it can be “by staring at someone and undressing them with one’s eyes, blowing kisses, winking or licking one’s lips in suggestive manner”.

On physical contact, the BDF warns that touching, patting, pinching, bumping, grabbing, cornering or blocking a passageway, kissing, providing unsolicited back or neck rub and sexual assault or rape will not be tolerated.



Inside the BDF’s despised fraternisation policy document

The BDF ‘women’ policy on Fraternisation is titled ‘policy on standards for women in the BDF’ and was created in 2008 in haste following the first batch of cadets who were trained in Tanzania. It is the brainchild of two army heavyweights, Brigadier M. Alidi and Major General Mophuting following a benchmarking trip in Kenya at a force founded 14 years before ours. Interestingly, Major General Mophuting will a few months later be charged on offending the same policy he has created after he was charged over dating an officer cadet, a charge that almost cost him his job.

Eight years in existence, the policy has already endured a few heavy blows not only from lawyers but insiders who are responsible for applying it. Its implementers are not happy at ‘the shallow work’ done by Brigadier Alidi and Major General Mophuting, as the policy lacks several basic policy components.

While the policy purports to be trying all the army offenders across all ranks, non in the Court Martial is above the rank of Major. This means that juniors have been tasked to try their seniors- a no-go area for any junior if you ask anybody accustomed to the military customs. This therefore not only makes establishment as a kangaroo court but also makes it prone to miscarriage of justice.

The said policy in conclusion directs commanders to make sure that fraternisation does not take place ‘through aggressive and progressive proper training once each year’.

This according to the document “will help soldiers to understand sexual harassment, how to recognise it, how to prevent it, how to report it and the consequences of engaging in it”.

Sources however say that no training to this effect has taken place and the issue has been left to the servicemen and women‘s conscience.

The policy document which is riddled with the word-relationship does not at any point define what a relationship is.

While the said policy document in conclusion expressly states that ‘violation of this policy shall constitute an offence under the BDF Act’, lawyers argue that Section 65 of the BDF Act, does not anywhere recognise the policy. They further argue that it has not gone through known policy statutes but remains thetwo men’s opinions. The BDF is currently reviewing the Act to make it all encompassing.

In its effort to protect women, the policy document urges women to directly confront the harasser and tell them off and warn them, write a letter to the harasser shunning the approach, use common courtesy, indirect approach through a third party or follow the chain of command. At the recent graduation ceremony of the female group, the immediate past commander, General Galebotswe promised servicewomen that the BDF will do all it can to protect them despite limited resources.

“You have female officers to call upon in case of this challenge – fraternisation. We will also as leadership provide a conducive environment to empower you to successfully prepare yourselves against this matter. You will be deployed in teams so that you have each other’s counsel and support,” he said. The Commander further promised servicewomen that their regime commanders will be the ones playing the role before anybody.



The life and challenges of women in the BDF

According to the BDF Act, any person subject to this Act who-lends money to any person senior to him in rank or borrows money from or accepts any present from any person junior to him in rank shall, on conviction by Court Martial or by the High Court, be liable to imprisonment for two years or any less punishment provided by this Act.

A dismissed BDF couple is currently challenging their dismissal on the basis that the act does not recommend dismissals. According to the creator of the women-fraternisation policy, Mophuting, the BDF Act demonstrates that fraternisation is a gender- neutral concept that has been in existence since the inception of the BDF, albeit the introduction of women in the BDF and will compel the command to make a gender encompassing policy.

“Since the BDF is a small force and is currently experiencing various financial constraints men and women are likely to find themselves in awkward situations like sharing accommodation not necessarily preferred by the BDF,” he says. When economic constraints strikes, the army can place senior and junior members in close proximity with one another, such as combined ranks or joint use of officers’ clubs, joint recreational facilities or mixed officer/enlisted housing areas.

He hints on several sobering questions – what effects do policies regarding the assignment of women have upon military families, children, and the society? Should serviceman husband and servicewoman wife be stationed together? Who looks after the children when both parents are deployed, or when the father or mother is a single parent?

How much does having a husband and family hinder a servicewoman’s career or vice versa? These are the kinds of questions that the BDF will have to struggle with when it decides on sound parental and family policies. According to him, “it is important that the BDF develop an accommodating policy that will allow women to lead a normal life as well as effectively perform the tasks required of them.”

In response to Mmegi, the BDF director of protocol and public affairs Tebo Dikole declined to shed light on the number of fraternisation charges within the army safe to say “disciplinary issues pertaining to service members are confidential, solely internal and administrative and therefore cannot be shared with third parties”.

On whether there was ever anything done to prepare the army prior to the introduction of women in the BDF, he said “prior to the introduction of uniformed female members in the BDF, a thorough feasibility study was conducted to facilitate for the introduction of female soldiers in the files and ranks of the BDF”. According to him the BDF has deliberate programmes aimed at promoting gender issues in line with military traditions, policies and best practices, which among other issues does not condone fraternisation.

As reported by Tefo Pheage for The Monitor


http://www.african-defense.com/defense-news/women-in-botswana-defence-force/






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MessageSujet: Re: Armée du Botswana/Botswana Defence Force   

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