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 Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Jeu 1 Mar 2012 - 13:20

Citation :
BrahMos test flight for Sukhoi-30 by year end

TNN Feb 26, 2012, 06.41AM IST

TRICHY: The BrahMos missile for the Indian Air Force which can be launched from a Sukhoi-30 is being developed and a test flight will probably be held by the end of this year, said Dr A Sivathanu Pillai, chief controller, R&D, DRDO and chief executive officer and managing director of BrahMos Aerospace. The BrahMos missile used an air breathing scramjet propulsion technology and hence was more fuel efficient than a traditional rocket-powered missile, he said.

Pillai was in Trichy on Saturday to deliver a lecture in the ongoing Pragyan 2012 of the National Institute of Technology, Trichy (NITT). According to him, the paradigm of India's progress must be in the course of a leap frog in technology. "When the world had a cruise missile, India went forward to make a supersonic cruise missile," he said.

He also touched upon the predictions for the future in technology in all spheres of life. "The future belongs to self-driven cars (which have been tested by DRDO in an ongoing project), flying cars, stem cell surgery, morphing airframes, solar power satellite and a space lift," he explained.

On the future of energy, he stressed that nuclear and solar power are the sources. Pillai also mentioned about the latest research into nano-solar cells that claim efficiency of 50% at low costs.

Turing his attention on BrahMos, Pillai stressed on the versatility and elite characteristics of the world's only supersonic cruise missile. Capable of being launched from land or sea to any target on land or sea, with a speed of Mach 2.8 (2.8 times faster than the speed of sound, which is three times faster than the USA's contemporary Tomahawk cruise missile). The BrahMos is the brainchild of Pillai's team comprising the DRDO, India and NPO Mashinostroyenia (NPOM) of Russia.
http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-02-26/madurai/31101178_1_npo-mashinostroyenia-cruise-missile-brahmos-aerospace

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Jeu 1 Mar 2012 - 14:09

Citation :


MiG 21s to be phased out from 2014


NEW DELHI: MiG 21s, which have often been involved in frequent crashes, will start getting phased out from 2014 setting the stage for giving the IAF a "new look" with the induction of modern next generation aircraft.

"MiG 21s which constitute around 40 per cent of the IAF fleet will start getting phased out from 2014... With the induction of modern next generation aircraft such as the FGFA and MMRCA, the IAF will be a new look force," Defence Minister A K Antony said.

Indian Air Force(IAF) is on course to induct Su-30MKI, Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft and 126 new medium-multirole combat aircraft (MMRCA).

Antony was addressing a meeting of Parliament's Consultative Committee of the Defence Ministry on the state-owned aerospace major Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).

The IAF has already begun the process of phasing out the older variants of the MiG 21s and it is expecting to complete the process by the end of 2017. Last year, a total of seven fighter aircraft had crashed of which six were MiG 21 variants.

The IAF) has inducted a total of 946 MiG-21s in its fleet and 476 of them have been lost in various accidents over the past 45 years. In a recent report, the ministry acknowledged that most of these accidents had occurred due to obsolete technology.
indiatimes

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Lun 5 Mar 2012 - 16:14

Citation :

Indian Army To Get 100 Artillery Guns From OFB



March 1, 2012 at 18:05




After an interval of more than two decades, the Indian Army has approved a contract for the purchase of artillery guns.
The Indian defence manufacturer Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) won the contract, which calls for the manufacture of 100 Howitzer artillery guns.


After the controversial Bofors scandal more than two decades ago, the army had been reluctant to award contracts involving Howitzer guns. Many of the top ranking politicians at that time, including the former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, were accused of receiving kickbacks from arms manufacturers in return for paying inflated prices for the Bofors artillery guns. Although during the last 20 years, the army had invited bids a number of times, it never finalized any of the tenders.

MM Pallam Raju, from the Indian defence ministry clarified that a total of 100 artillery guns will be manufactured and the orders are placed for the 155mm 52 calibre howitzer model. He informed the media that research work for the manufacture of a number of howitzer variants are underway and many of them are nearing completion. However, he clarified that the bids for artillery gun variants such as the Towed Howitzers, Self-Propelled Howitzers and Ultra Light Howitzers will be open to all, including foreign defence equipment manufacturers. The army plans to purchase a total of four hundred towed howitzers, along with 180 self-propelled ones and 145 ultra-light versions. The deals are part of a Rs.20,000 crore (USD 4 billion) artillery modernisation plan undertaken by the army, which plans to diversify and modernize its artillery equipment.

The OFB has been supplying the army with many of the Howitzer spare parts, including muzzle break, loading trough, recoil system, barrel, and breach mechanism. Recently it has also supplied the army the elevating and traversing cylinders, which are used for gun laying.

The outgoing Army chief, Gen. Vijay Kumar Singh had intended to induct at least one new artillery variant in to the army by March 2012, but it seems that the army will have to wait a little longer to see the plans materialized.

The Bofors scandal caused huge political controversy during the late 1980s and had tarnished the image of Rajiv Gandhi, along with other prominent Indian National Congress (INC) politicians. However, defence officials had lauded its performance during the Kargil war of 1999. During the war, the Indian army, with the help of these artillery guns, forced the Pakistan based insurgents to evacuate the regions which they had encroached in and around Kargil.

The Indian Ordnance Factories Board, which is headquartered in Kolkota, West Bengal is operating more than 40 arms and ammunition factories across India. It is fully government owned and functions under the defence ministry. In addition to the Howitzer guns, their products include Vidhwansak and INSAS rifles, various types of military vehicles and other defence equipment such as parachutes and propellants.
indiandefence

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Lun 5 Mar 2012 - 17:56

Citation :
Un chasseur Mirage 2000 de l'armée de l'air indienne s'est écrasé lundi à l'Etat de Rajasthan (nord-ouest) à 60 km au sud-est de la ville de Jaipur. L'accident est intervenu peu après le décollage de la base aérienne de Gwalior. Les pilotes ont réussi à s'éjecter. Il s'agit du deuxième accident des chasseurs Mirage 2000 depuis 15 jours. Fin février, un autre avion s'est écrasé dans le district de Bhind de l'Etat de Madhya Prades. Ses pilotes se sont sauvés eux aussi.

http://french.ruvr.ru/2012_03_05/67621088
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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Lun 5 Mar 2012 - 17:58

rafi a écrit:
Citation :
Un chasseur Mirage 2000 de l'armée de l'air indienne s'est écrasé lundi à l'Etat de Rajasthan (nord-ouest) à 60 km au sud-est de la ville de Jaipur. L'accident est intervenu peu après le décollage de la base aérienne de Gwalior. Les pilotes ont réussi à s'éjecter. Il s'agit du deuxième accident des chasseurs Mirage 2000 depuis 15 jours. Fin février, un autre avion s'est écrasé dans le district de Bhind de l'Etat de Madhya Prades. Ses pilotes se sont sauvés eux aussi.

http://french.ruvr.ru/2012_03_05/67621088

roh si il peuvent seulement nous les donnée ces 2000 ...

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Lun 5 Mar 2012 - 18:06

2 en deux semaines Shocked à ce rythme en février prochain leur flotte de -5 n'existera plus Laughing

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Dernière édition par Fahed64 le Lun 5 Mar 2012 - 18:15, édité 1 fois
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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Lun 5 Mar 2012 - 18:07

Lorsque ce sont des MiG-21 qui tombent comme des mouches, je peux le comprendre, mais 2 Mirage 2000 en 15 jours...
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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Mar 6 Mar 2012 - 2:14

ils reduisent la facture d´upgrade a leur facon,a defaut de bien negocier le deal Laughing

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Mer 7 Mar 2012 - 11:27

Citation :

Testing Indian aircraft carrier in Barents Sea


2012-03-06


The "Vikramaditja" when still in operation in the Soviet Navy (photo: Wikipedia)





The refubished «Admiral Gorshkov» is ready for test sailing in the Barents Sea.


The 45,000 tons and 273 meter long ship is expected to undergo testing in the Barents Sea in the course of May, a source associated with the Russian military industrial complex told Itar-Tass. In addition, the ship will undertake a 3,5 month test expedition

Then, on 4 December, the ship will be handed over to the Indian Navy, the source says.
barentsobserver

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Sam 10 Mar 2012 - 15:08

Citation :

India's LCA Tejas Fighter Completes Solo Flight, Will Be Offered To IAF For User Evaluation


Tejas-7 lands after first maiden flight

The Tejas Limited Series Production - 7 successfully took off on its maiden flight on March 9 from HAL airport in Bangalore, the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) announced on Friday.

This test flight is significant for the programme, as LSP -7 build standard is close to the initial operational clearance (IOC) standard.

Accordingly LSP -7 aircraft, along with LSP - 8 will be offered to the Indian Air Force for user evaluation trials UET),” the DRDO said in a statement.

The flight which lasted 28 minutes was also significant because this is the first time Production Test Schedule was used for the first flight of a LSP aircraft in this programme. This is also the first time maiden flight of a prototype was not accompanied by the customary ‘chase’ aircraft, which is an indicator to the level of confidence in the machine, DRDO said. During the test flight, performance of the aircraft systems including Multi-mode Radar (MMR), Helmet Mounted Display System (HMDS), Auto-pilot and Instrument Landing System (ILS) were tested and found to be satisfactory.
http://www.defenseworld.net/go/defensenews.jsp?id=6698&h=India's%20LCA%20Tejas%20Fighter%20Completes%20Solo%20Flight,%20Will%20Be%20Offered%20To%20IAF%20For%20User%20Evaluation

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Sam 10 Mar 2012 - 18:24

Tu142ME ... vol d'essais après la modernisation


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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Dim 11 Mar 2012 - 22:15

Citation :
India's Bharat Electronics Gains Entry Into The Nuclear Power Equipment Business

India's state-run defense electronics manufacturer, Bharat Electronics Ltd. (BEL) has bagged a nuclear power instrumentation project for the Nuclear Power Corporation of India.


Mr. Anil Kumar, BEL managing director, in an exclusive interview with DefenseWorld.net, said the company was in the process of gaining a foothold in the nuclear power business.

“The Kotdwara Unit of BEL is attempting to make an entry into the nuclear business by taking up a developmental project for Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL). BEL is also participating in a tender worth INR 800 crore by NPCIL for Control Centre & Instrumentation Product (C&I) for upcoming 4 nuclear power plants,” Kumar told defenseworld.net. “Currently, technical evaluation is under progress. Other upcoming opportunities in C&I are also being addressed by BEL to gain a foothold in the nuclear business,” he said.

In 2011, BEL eyed a tender for nuclear power instrumentation for supplying control devices for eight N-power plants that are proposed to be built for an estimated at Rs 500-700 crore.

Nuclear power-instrumentation is one of the areas of growth in future market opportunity identified by consulting firm KPMG, appointed by BEL.


This significant restructuring comes at a time when BEL is commencing work on multiple areas such as solar energy, airborne radars and C4I systems.

http://www.defenseworld.net

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Mar 13 Mar 2012 - 14:01

Il est bien ce Tejas normalement il doit enter en service en 2013.




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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Mar 13 Mar 2012 - 14:57

pas mal pour un produit indien,assez oour contrer le JF17 voisins,mais un peu tard pour son temps,en plus du fait de n´avoir d´indien que la cellule!
ce qui me choque c´est que ces vols test passent audessus de centres urbains pale

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Mar 13 Mar 2012 - 15:34

Yakuza a écrit:
pas mal pour un produit indien,assez oour contrer le JF17 voisins,mais un peu tard pour son temps,en plus du fait de n´avoir d´indien que la cellule!
ce qui me choque c´est que ces vols test passent audessus de centres urbains pale

les 20 premier avion aurons des moteur F404 de GE mais au-delà de 20 il vont incorporais un moteur de fabrication indien le Kaveri

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Mar 13 Mar 2012 - 15:58

non mon ami,leur kaveri est kaputt pour tjs,il rencontrait des problemes insurmentables sans aide etrangere!
ils vont aller F404/414 au debut,mais pour leur programme ils ont invité Snecma a les aider dans leur probleme,y´aura donc cuisses de grenouilles au curry!

Citation :
Kaveri turbofan programme seeks extension
Published March 5, 2012
SOURCE: SP Aviation

There have also been unforeseen delays in the joint engine effort by DRDO and Snecma for a robust 90kN turbofan engine, based on the M88 ECO core and meeting the minimum performance requirements of the IAF and Navy. Negotiations on technology sharing and intellectual property have taken the better part of the two years, though a top official confirmed that a contract between DRDO and Snecma is likely to be signed within the year.The joint effort, in effect, calls an end to the Kaveri K9 programme as it stands. What it does is propose to quickly build a 90kN thrust turbofan and offer it off the block to the IAF and Navy for their Tejas Mk.1s. The Kaveri-Snecma engine, in twin configuration, could also power India’s advanced medium combat aircraft (AMCA), though that is still well into the future.

DRDO sources confirm that Snecma will transfer several key technologies as part of the joint engine programme, which include single crystal blades, bladed disk and EBPVD (electron beam plasma vapour deposit coating), all critical areas that the Kaveri engine has failed to find solutions to within the country, though not for lack of trying. Programme managers believe single crystal blade technology will be a major solution to one of the Kaveri’s biggest problems — deformation of blades during testing as a result of high ambient temperatures. This has proved to be a severe limiting factor, considering that structurally solidified blades have structural integrity that comes nowhere close to single crystal structures. According to sources, it is negotiations over the modalities for single crystal blade technology that has taken so long, though the end is finally in sight. Several DRDO labs and the MDNL have tried for years to create an indigenous SCT solution, but so far without success.

The tie up with Snecma will launch the Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) into an all-new league, and will involve modern forging, welding and casting techniques for the first time. Unlike the Kaveri K9 programme, the K10 programme (the official designation for the proposed effort with Snecma) will be professionally monitored from the outset, with hard timelines and investments. The work share model has been hammered down, and scientists are confident that they have extracted a competitive contract from the French. Initial reservations about sharing certain technologies were ironed out following the slew of military contracts that went France’s way, the last being the substantive Mirage 2000 H/TH upgrade programme.

Almost the entire work force that has been dedicated so far to the Kaveri [9] will be diverted to the K10 effort with Snecma. Scientists foresee challenges in absorbing the technology, but are confident that they will achieve goals once the contract is signed and the effort flagged off. A senior GTRE scientist says, “We have the will and the base technologies. We understand fully well what our shortcomings are, and are eager to deliver a full performance engine to the customer. Gone is the time when we can stay in the lab indefinitely saying we will come up with certain technologies by ourselves. The French will help us cut down on development time. And we will both deliver an engine that will power Indian aircraft. Everybody wins.”
http://idrw.org/?p=8948

c´est pour dire encore une fois,que la technologie de propulsion est la plus compliquée dans un programme!

et voila ce qui.entre autres,explique le succes du rafale en inde,le ToT complet.

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Mar 13 Mar 2012 - 16:06

ah bon je ne savais pas qu"il etait out Neutral

en revanche comme tu as dit avec le ToT il vont appondre avec le temps a résoudre les problèmes qu’ ils ont sur leur propre réacteur Like a Star @ heaven

en attendent ca voila un autre revers au Tejas Arrow

Citation :
India’s LCA Refused Certification



India's Naval version of the first indigenous fighter, the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA-Navy), has failed to acquire the certification needed to make its debut flight because of structural issues, according to The Sunday Guardian.



The debut flight was initially slated to take place by the end of 2010, but was delayed. The Centre for Military Airworthiness and Certification (CEMILAC) refused the certification saying the structure of the aircraft needed rectifications, the report said.

Currently being built by the Bangalore-based Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) under the guidance of the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA), the LCA-Navy has the primary role of air defence and anti-shipping strike and interception.

The LCA-Navy is heavier than the IAF version as it has a landing gear that makes its under-carriage weightier than its IAF counterpart. Its features distinguish the naval version from the Indian Air Force's LCA.

Defence Minister A.K. Antony stated in Parliament last year, "Deficiencies have been detected in the airframe and other associated equipment of the LCA Navy. Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is working out modalities with various organisations for rectifying these deficiencies by suitable modifications to the engine/airframe design".

The Navy has ordered 46 of these aircraft for the IAC, which is expected to be ready for sea-trials towards the end of 2013.
defenseworld

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Mar 13 Mar 2012 - 17:58

au moins il ont réussi le 1er test pour le k15...

Citation :
K-15 test fired



After many postponements, the DRDO finally test-fired the most sophisticated submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM), code named K-15. The weapon system was reportedly tested from an underwater launching platform off Visakhapatnam coast on Sunday.
Sources said the missile was launched from a Pontoon (replica of a submarine) positioned nearly 20 feet deep in the Bay of Bengal and 10 km off the AP coast. The DRDO has scheduled the second test for March 14.
Sources confirmed that the test was successful and the missile travelled nearly 700 km before zeroing in on the target. The missile test was earlier deferred on several occasions. “A rectified system was put into trial, this time, which delivered the desired results,” he said, adding that the final evaluation from the warships (makeshift control room) stationed in the sea is awaited.
Developed by DRDO, K-15 can carry a conventional payload of about 500 kg and be fitted with tactical nuclear warhead.
This missile is an advanced clone of Naval version of Prithvi and designed to be exclusively launched from a submarine. Close to the Tomahawk missile of the US, it is India’s answer to Pakistan’s Babur missile. Though the DRDO has unveiled its land variant - Shourya, it has been denying the test of K-15 or B-05 since beginning. “We tested a scientific concept which is under development. We are evaluating its parameters,” Programme director A K Chakrabarti said.

http://ibnlive.in.com/news/k15-test-fired/238705-60-117.html

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Mar 13 Mar 2012 - 21:21



http://livefist.blogspot.com/

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Mar 13 Mar 2012 - 23:15

en voila un autre contrat en vue...

Citation :
Inde : nouveau contrat géant en vue pour la défense

Après la sélection du Rafale français pour équiper l'armée de l'air en Inde, les constructeurs aéronautiques mondiaux visent un nouveau contrat d'un milliard de dollars pour la marine indienne.

La marine indienne doit lancer dans les mois qui viennent un appel d'offres pour neuf avions de surveillance maritime (maritime patrol aircraft, MPA) à moyen rayon d'action (600 km). Le programme, qui a reçu le feu vert du ministre de la défense fin février, est évalué à 50 milliards de roupies, soit un milliard de dollars.

LES ACTEURS DU SECTEUR RÉUNIS AU SALON DE L'AVIATION CIVILE

De l'américain Boeing au brésilien Embraer, en passant par le français Dassault Aviation et le géant européen EADS, la plupart des firmes concernées se retrouvent aussi au salon de l'aviation civile, qui s'ouvre mercredi 14 mars à Hyderabad, dans le sud de l'Inde.

Embraer s'est dit intéressé, tout en précisant à l'AFP que sa participation "dépendra des spécifications finales de l'appel d'offres". Il dispose notamment d'une version de surveillance maritime de son biréacteur ERJ 145, déjà vendu à 18 forces aériennes dans le monde.

Dassault dispose d'une version MPA de son avion d'affaires Falcon 900 DX. Conçu pour emporter sept membres d'équipage, le Falcon 900 MPA a été vendu à deux exemplaires à la Corée du Sud en décembre dernier pour intercepter les messages radio de la Corée du Nord et les départs de missiles.



Dassault est déjà en négociations avec New Delhi pour finaliser un contrat de 126 avions de combat multirôles Rafale, d'une valeur estimée à 12 milliards de dollars.



Airbus Military, filiale d'EADS, serait "heureux de proposer son C295" pour répondre à l'appel d'offres, a indiqué un porte-parole. La version de surveillance maritime du C295, à turbopropulseurs, est déjà en service au Chili et au Portugal.



Les neuf patrouilleurs doivent élargir la panoplie de la marine pour la surveillance de l'océan Indien. Elle a commandé à Boeing en 2009 huit P-8 Poseidon à long rayon d'action. La surveillance du littoral est elle assurée par des appareils plus petits du constructeur allemand Dornier et des drones israéliens.

L'Inde revendique 200 000 km2 de zone économique exclusive dans les mers qui la bordent. Elle est devenue le premier marché d'armement parmi les pays émergents.

lemonde.fr

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MessageSujet: Re: Armée Indienne / Indian Armed Forces   Mer 14 Mar 2012 - 10:09

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India's spy satellite to be launched in April


Chennai: A wholly Indian-built spy/surveillance satellite - Radar Imaging Satellite (Risat-1) - that can see through clouds and fog and has very high- resolution imaging is slated for launch in April, a senior official of the Indian space agency has said.

An official of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) said thorough tests were being done on the Risat-1. "The Risat-1 is put to thermal vacuum test (a test to check the satellite's functioning in space environment). It is a complex microwave satellite being built for the first time in India. The satellite is expected to be launched in April," said the senior official, not wishing to be named because of the organisational rules.

In earlier satellites, one major component, the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) was imported, but in Risat-1 that has also been developed in India.

He said Risat-1 is the first such satellite being built by India and is a bit complex compared to other remote sensing/earth observation satellites built and sent up earlier.

According to ISRO officials, Risat-1 at 1,850 kg is the heaviest microwave satellite to be built by India.



The satellite would be used for disaster prediction and agriculture forestry, and the high resolution pictures and microwave imaging could also be used for defence purposes.

Risat-1 will have all weather, day and night imaging capability.

The satellite's synthetic aperture radar can acquire data at C-band.

ISRO Chairman K. Radhakrishnan had said last October that the space agency would launch two more satellites - Risat-1 and SARAL - before 2011-end. But that did not happen. He also said two more satellites - AstroSat and Aditya - will be launched in 2012-13.

Remote sensing satellites send back pictures and other data for use. India has the largest constellation of remote sensing satellites in the world providing imagery in a variety of spatial resolutions, from more than a metre ranging up to 500 metres, and is a major player in vending such data in the global market.

In 2009, ISRO had launched 300 kg Risat-2 with an Israeli built SAR enabling earth observation on all weather, day and night conditions. The satellite can look through clouds and fog.

With 11 remote sensing/earth observation satellites orbiting in the space, India is a world leader in the remote sensing data market. The 11 satellites are TES, Resourcesat 1, Cartosat 1, 2, 2A and 2B, IMS 1, Risat-2, Oceansat 2, Resourcesat-2, Megha-Tropiques.

According to ISRO officials, the rocket that would sling Risat-1 will be the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle's (PSLV) upgraded variant called PSLV-XL.

The rocket would weigh around 320 tonnes at lift-off and will be the third such expendable rocket to be sent up by ISRO, and first time to launch a remote sensing satellite.

ISRO had used the PSLV-XL variant (rocket with extended strap-on motors than what the base model has) for its moon mission (Chandrayaan-1) in 2008 and for launching its communication satellite GSAT-12 in 2011.

The PSLV is a four-stage (engine) rocket powered by solid and liquid propellants alternatively. The first and third stages are fired by solid propellant and the second and fourth stages are fired by liquid propellant.

ISRO has developed three PSLV variants. The first is the standard variant weighing around 290 tonnes with six strap-on motors measuring 11.3 metres with a fuel capacity of nine tonnes.

The other two rocket variants are the PSLV Core Alone without the six strap-on motors and PSLV-XL with longer strap-on motors measuring 13.5 metres having a fuel capacity of 12 tonnes of solid fuel.

IANS

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