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 Armes de fabrication Israelienne

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Armes de fabrication Israelienne - Page 21 Arie

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In the mid-70s a group of IAI (Israel Air Industries) engineers and IAF (Israeli Air Force) officers began a new project to develop an ultra modern Israeli fighter aircraft – a project that was supposed to take a quantum leap for aeronautics.

Designed to be the most advanced of its kind in the world by any standards, the Arie (Lion), would give the IAF a reliable option to the advanced US F-15 and F-16 types. Although it has never came through, the Arie became the cornerstone of another future and most ambitious project ever, an Israeli breakthrough to develop and produce the Lavi, the Israeli dream aircraft to outmatch the F-16.


Background

In response to the French embargo forced upon Israel after the Six-day warin 1967, a decision was made to strive for independence in the development of major weapons systems. Israel had already acquired the means to build good copies of the French Mirage, but wanted to be much more than just a clone maker.
The commander of the IAF (1982-1987), Gen. Amos Lapidot: said, “The essence was to create a technological infrastructure to develop and manufacture weapons systems in the three major weapons systems platforms – tanks, aircraft and ships. Behind that concept, were three basic rationales: First, Israel should not, and could not rely on foreign countries very volatile foreign policies. Secondly, the Israeli air force always strives to develop and use new war tactics and strategies, and was in constant need of new equipment to fulfill those operational objectives. Third, a national strategy to promote Israel 's and IAI's state-of-the-art technological accomplishments". This last point doesn't come over so well in English - by implication, these accomplishments would deter aggression, save money on expensive foreign weapon imports and maybe help Israeli exports.


Development

In 1974, an IAI team was set up to begin the Arie project. As no government approval had yet been received to produce it, the program was simply codenamed “R&D project”. Ovadia Harrari, who would later become head of the Lavi program, was to lead that endeavor.
The IAI decided to develop the Arie based on the technological knowhow acquired from the Kfir project, particularly from the Kfir-Canard program – the improved version. In fact, the first proposal which was put on hold by the Air Force, was to develop an aircraft to be named “Super Kfir” – a regular Kfir whose original J79 engine was replaced by an F100 model, the same as in early F-15/F-16s versions. That new engine would substantially increase the Super-Kfir's flying performance. However, due to the Air Force's strict specs requirements, a new draft was called for, in spite of the Kfir/Arie's visual similarities.
Over thirty different configurations were evaluated. The IAI tested several engine models, including the British Rolls- Royce RB-199, which powers the European Tornado aircraft. Soon, the options were reduced to just two. The F-100 single engine plane, or a twin-engine version.
The later, codenamed Light Weight Fighter-4 (LWF-4), was to be powered by two General-Electric F-404 engines as used in the F-18. “Looking at the different designs of the Arie, one can notice that it is an extensively modified Kfir” explains Harrari ,“ the aircraft is visually different, but its roots lay in the Kfir”.
The new future fighter aircraft, which was now codenamed “Hadish” (innovative), could be described as a single seat light fighter, capable of reaching 2.4 Mach speed, a 75,000 ft altitude ceiling, with a 480 km combat radius. Armament: would have been a 30-mm cannon and medium range air-to-air missiles. Avionics would include a radar, a helmet sight and an integral electronic warfare system. In addition, the aircraft would have low optical and radar signatures. Even the US F-15 and F-16 could not match these features at that time.
The outstanding question: An air-to-air fighter, or an air-to-ground attack aircraft?
During its initial design phases, the 1973Yom-Kippur war broke out, and the Israeli Air Force focused its attention on the battle proven air-to-air configuration concept, as air power and air superiority consist basically of air-to-air combat missions. Therefore, about 90 percent of the “Hadish” capabilities would be directed for air-to-air combat.


Technologies and Avionics


The Arie had several technological breakthroughs. It was designed to be the first Israeli aircraft to deploy digital fly-by-wire flight control system (at that time, cutting edge technology). This fly-by-wire concept, permitted the engineers to design an aerodynamically non-stable platform. Hence, they could achieve a small and highly maneuverable aircraft.
In the air-to-air version, to cope with enemy intruder aircraft, and keeping its air-superiority capabilities, the Arie would be equipped with advanced avionics and special ordnance systems: a highly sensitive Israeli radar capable of acquiring low-altitude flying targets. Advanced electro-optical systems would enable the Arie to locate ground targets at night.
Another breakthrough, was the pilot's option to use his helmet mounted sight, easing his combat workload. In the mid-70's these systems were nearly unheard of. It would take another ten years for the helmet mounted sight to become operational in any type of combat aircraft.
The Arie's cockpit resembles to a great extent that of the F-16's early versions. Besides the Head-up Display (HUD), a Monochromatic Display was mounted in the cockpit to display the radar's viewpoint.
The Pilot's view was close to 360º visibility– a life and death factor in air combats. This is now the normal design in both Western and Russian combat aircraft from the F-15 onwards.
The Arie's ordnance would include an improved 30-mm DAPA cannon, assorted air-to-air missiles, iron bombs, and precision guided ordnance. Max. military load is: 7 tons.
Although that aircraft was not meant to be a stealth aircraft, some basic stealth features were studied to give it the option to strike heavily fortified missile zones. This objective was based on the lessons learned during and after the 1973 Yom-Kippur war, when Israeli fighters had to face a huge number of SAMs. The Arie would also be equipped with an advanced Electronic-Warfare system produced by Israel , giving the pilot an early warning signal to lock on to enemy threats and jam them.
Studies were made to drastically reduce its radar signature, making it extremely difficult to be detected by enemy radar. For example, its bomb load was to be stowed inside a conformal ventral capsule, to reduce its radar cross section.


A Paper's Lion

According to the program timetable, the Arie's initial development phase should have been completed by mid 1979. Until then, the IAI would have to complete flight tests, select and define all the contractors.
By that year's end, an initial test flight was scheduled for the first of three prototypes.
By mid 1980, 10 pre-production aircrafts should be completed, with regular production to begin in the following two years. The Air Force should be receiving the first production Arie by the end of 1983. Delivery of 100 aircraft would be completed by the end of 1985.
Meanwhile, the IAF was leaning towards the US aircraft option. Rumors indicated that the USA would finally agree to sell Israel F-15s and F-16s. Finally, a decision was made to order the US aircraft. and scrap the Arie.
In August 1975, the IAF's chief, the (late) Gen. Benny Peled released a document defining the IAF's policy in relation to the Arie project. The document recommended the US F-15s and F-16s. Based on his assessment, the IAF began a procurement program of F-15s to be delivered by 1976. Moreover, it had been determined that the F-16 in principle answered Israel 's operational needs for an air superiority aircraft for the 80s. As a result of intense pressure on the IAF, Gen. Benny Peled decided to respond with a letter on May 10, 1976 , stating the reasons not to progress with the Arie: The US would agree to sell Israel F-16s. It had also been agreed that the US would sell Israel the F-100 engine, and there were not sufficient funds to keep the project moving.
“The fundamental knowledge that led to the development of the Lavi relied on the experience acquired from the “Hadish” and Arie”, says Gen. Lapidot, who created the Lavi project board, and commanded the Israeli Air Force by the time the project was canceled. “It can be definitely stated that the Arie, the Nesher and Kfir programs, added significantly to the development of the Israel Aircraft Industry (IAI), so that when we gave the “go ahead” for the Lavi, we already had a complete infrastructure in place and ready to work. In 1980, we decided to build a smaller version of the Arie. It is not by coincidence that it was named the Lavi. Lavi is a Lion (Arie), although a very much younger and smaller one”

Type Single-seat, multi-role aircraft
Max. speed 2.4 Mach
Max. altitude 75,000 feet

http://www.israeli-weapons.com/weapons/aircraft/arie/Arie.htm
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Rafael Completes Third RecceLite System Development...

https://monch.com/rafael-completes-third-reccelite-system-development/
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Armes de fabrication Israelienne - Page 21 Df4a6e3ad1db4e31dfaa185f4259d7790dfefe5b2a24bd821db615a4cf191ed8
:copyright: MoD Israël

 14/04/2022 19:45 | Gaétan Powis

Le système laser de défense israélien a réussi sa nouvelle campagne d'essais


Israël a testé avec succès un système laser à haute puissance pouvant détruire plusieurs types de projectiles. Il doit venir renforcer les différentes défenses sol-air protégeant les zones habitées en Israël.


Aujourd'hui, le Ministère de la Défense israélienne a annoncé publiquement qu'il avait testé lors de plusieurs scénarios un laser à haute puissance. Les essais ont été effectués il y a plusieurs jours voire plusieurs semaines et incluaient des interceptions de drones, obus de mortiers et roquettes antichars. 
Israël s'intéresse depuis plusieurs années aux systèmes anti-projectiles/drones. L'année dernière des essais avaient été effectués mais seules les interceptions contre des drones avaient été réussies. A l'inverse, cette nouvelle campagne de test a démontré l'efficacité du système contre les drones, obus de mortiers et roquettes antichars. Il s'agirait alors du premier système C-RAM opérationnel à grande échelle.
Le Premier Ministre israélien avait déjà annoncé en février que le système allait devenir opérationnel pour la fin de cette année. Ce système viendra renforcer la défense anti-missile/projectiles d'Israël multicouches :

  • Dôme de Fer (courte portée)
  • Fronde de David (roquettes et missiles courte/longue portée)
  • Arrow 2 (remplacement des batteries antimissiles Patriot)
  • Arrow 3 (missiles de croisières spatiaux supersoniques)


    Le système laser de défense israélien a réussi sa nouvelle campagne d'essais (air-cosmos.com)




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Citation :
IRON DOME RAFAEL

Short-range counter artillery ammunition air defense missile system - Israel





DescriptionTechnical DataSpecificationsDetails viewPictures - Video
Armes de fabrication Israelienne - Page 21 Iron_Dome_counter_artillery_ammunition_air_defense_missile_system_Israel_Rafael_925_001


Description
The Iron Dome is an Israeli-made effective and innovative mobile defense solution for countering short-range rockets and 155 mm artillery shell threats with ranges of up to 70 km in all weather conditions, including low clouds, rain, dust storms, or fog. The Iron Dome is developed by the Israeli Defence Company Rafael. The development of the Iron Dome began in January 2008 and is virtually complete after just two and a half years. The system uses a unique interceptor with a special warhead that detonates any target in the air within seconds. The Iron Dome is a cost-effective system that can handle multiple threats simultaneously and efficiently. The Iron Dome system has been selected by the Israeli Defense Ministry as the best system offering the most comprehensive defense solution against a wide range of threats in a relatively short development cycle and at a low cost. The Iron Dome System, which is expected to provide a defense to residents of Israel's South against rockets launched from the Gaza Strip, is entering into the final stages of performance testing and was even presented this week for the first time in an exhibition of technological weapons which was held at the Rabin military base. The Iron Dome system became operational in early 2011, initially deployed at air force bases in southern Israel. It will be set up in other areas, such as the town of Sderot, during significant escalations along the Gaza border. In November 2020, the Iron Dome entered service with the US Army. In January 2021, U.S. Army took delivery of the second Iron Dome air defense missile system from Israel.

Iron Dome variants:

- C-Dome: Naval version of the Iron Dome
- Drone Dome: Version design to counter attacks of UAVs Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. 





Iron Dome battery
Iron Dome is composed of three fundamental elements - detection and tracking radar, battle management, and weapon control system (BMC). A missile firing unit (MFU) with 20 ready to fire from container launchers (three launchers for one single battery). The radar system EL/M-2084 has been developed by an Israeli defense company, Elta. The control system has been built by an Israeli software company, mPrest Systems, engaged by Rafael.
Missile
The missile launched by the firing unit of Iron Dome includes Tamir interceptor missiles. It has several steering fins for high maneuverability and is equipped with electro-optic sensors. The Tamir interceptor was designed for high efficiency and low cost. The missile uses elements that have already been proven in other Rafael designs and employs new components designed for others in a special warhead that detonates any target in the air within seconds. Tamir missile, is 3 m long, weighs 90 kg, and has a 160 mm diameter.
Mobility
The Iron Dome battery components are usually carried on a 6x6 vehicle and can be rapidly placed in a position to protect strategic infrastructure targets, civilian population centers, or key military targets. Each Iron Dome battery has 20 interceptors, all of which can engage different targets at the same time.
Combat Use
The Iron Dome radar detects and identifies the rocket or artillery shell launch and monitors its trajectory. Target data is transmitted to the Battle Management & Weapon Control (BMC) for processing. The threat’s trajectory is quickly analyzed and the expected impact point is estimated. If the estimated rocket trajectory poses a critical threat, a command is given within seconds and an interceptor is launched against the threat.
The interceptor receives trajectory updates from the BMC via uplink communication. The interceptor approaches the target and uses its radar seeker to acquire the target and guides the interceptor within passing distance. The target warhead is detonated over a neutral area, therefore reducing collateral damage to the protected area. The Iron Dome is able to intercept and eliminate a wide range of threats as mortar shells through Hamas' Qassams, Hezbollah's Katyusha rockets and even the Fajr rockets supplied by Iran to Hezbollah and Hamas. Besides its role as a C-RAM system, Iron Dome can also provide combined C-RAM and Very Short Range Air Defense (VSHORAD) defense for air bases, military staging areas as well as coverage for maneuver units in the corps, division and brigade areas of responsibility - protecting stationary as well as mobile elements such as command posts, artillery fire units, troop concentrations etc. A single Iron Dome battery is required to protect an urban area of approximately 150 sq km from rockets fired at a range of 15 km, with the defended area growing if the rockets are fired from greater distances
 Type
 Firing Unit
 Air defense missile system against short-range artillery rockets.
 20 container launchers each with one Tamir missile
 Country users
 Weight Missile
 Israel, United States
 90 kg
 Designer Country
 Length Missile
 Israel
 3 m
 Radar
 Missile Range
 Detection & Tracking Radar EL/M-2084
 5,000 - 70,000 m




Armes de fabrication Israelienne - Page 21 Iron_Dome_counter_artillery_ammunition_air_defense_missile_system_Israel_Rafael_details_925_001
 Iron Dome air defense system against short range artillery rockets data | Israel Israeli military missile vehicles systems U | Israeli Israel army military equipment UK (armyrecognition.com) 



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Citation :
Hensoldt provides Israeli air defence radars with IFF equipment


Defense News July 2022 Global Security army industry


POSTED ON MONDAY, 25 JULY 2022 15:26



Sensor solutions specialist Hensoldt will deliver its latest-technology Identification-Friend-or-Foe (IFF) products to ELTA Systems Ltd, a subsidiary of Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd. (IAI).



Armes de fabrication Israelienne - Page 21 Hensoldt_provides_Israeli_air_defence_radars_with_IFF_equipment
Hensoldt is an expert in Mode 5 IFF (Picture source: Hensoldt)




Hensoldt was awarded by ELTA several contracts worth approximately 10 Million Euros to deliver a number of MSSR 2000 ID and MSR1000I secondary radars including test equipment. The IFF systems working according to the latest Mode 5 NATO standard will be integrated into civil air traffic control radars as well as military air defence radars operated by several customer nations.


Military IFF systems, like civil air traffic control radars, called secondary surveillance radars (SSR), precisely identify aircraft by automatically sending interrogation signals which are answered by so-called transponders on-board friendly aircraft. Thus, IFF enables field commanders to quickly distinguish friendly from hostile forces and helps avoid friendly fire incidents. Unlike Mode 4 used hitherto, Mode 5 employs sophisticated encryption techniques to avoid hostile signal manipulation, thus ensuring that the identification process is absolutely reliable and secure. “Mode 5” is in the process of being introduced in all western armies as a precondition of joint operations of US/NATO and allied forces.

Hensoldt is an expert in Mode 5 IFF. It is under contract to upgrade German, French and UK armed forces’ IFF systems to the “Mode 5” standard and has delivered IFF systems – including crypto devices - for ground and naval applications of several NATO nations. Among others, the company’s equipment is deployed on all German Navy ships as well as several UK Royal Navy ships. In total, Hensoldt has more than 700 IFF systems under contract in 42 nations.



Hensoldt provides Israeli air defence radars with IFF equipment | Defense News July 2022 Global Security army industry | Defense Security global news industry army year 2022 | Archive News year (armyrecognition.com)
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