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 systèmes DCA russes

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MessageSujet: systèmes DCA russes   Jeu 29 Oct 2009 - 20:42

Tunguska M-1 et variante
Citation :
Le Tunguska-M1 est un véhicule de défense antiaérienne basse altitude, équipé de canons et de missiles. Ce véhicule a été conçu par la société KBP Instrument Design Bureau de Tula en Russie et fabriqué par les usines Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant de Oulianvosk en Russie. Celui-ci peut engager des cibles fixes et mobiles, en utilisant des missiles longues portées ou des canons fixes. Il a été conçu pour pouvoir engager des avions et des hélicoptères de combat, mais il peut également servir contre des cibles terrestres. Le Tunguska est en service dans l'armée russe et également dans l'armée indienne. L'armement du véhicule est constitué de 8 missiles sol-air 9M311-M1 connu sous l'appellation OTAN de " Grison ". Ce missile est équipé d'un radar semi-automatique à guidage visuel, il pèse 40 kg et dispose d'une ogive de 9 kg. Il mesure 2,5 mètres de longueur pour un diamètre de 1,7 m et son envergure est de 2,2 mètres. La vitesse du missile est de 900 m/s et il peut engager des missiles qui se déplacent à une vitesse de 500 m/s. La portée est de 15 à 6.000 mètres pour des cibles terrestres et de de 15 à 10.000 mètres pour des cibles aériennes. Deux canons jumelés antiaériens de 30 mm sont montés sur le véhicule. Ces armes ont une capacité de tir de 5.000 coups par minute et peuvent engager des cibles aériennes jusqu'à une portée de 3.000 m, et de 4.000 m pour les cibles terrestres. Le véhicule dispose d'un radar d'acquisition d'objectif et d'un radar de poursuite, des optiques externes, un ordinateur de tir, et un système de navigation. La portée de détection du radar d'acquisition est de 18 km, tandis que pour le radar de poursuite, elle est de 16 km. La tourelle est montée sur un châssis 34t, similaire au ZSU-23-4. Il est équipé d'un moteur poly carburant. Il dispose d'une transmission hydromécanique, d'une suspension hydropneumatique qui tient compte du type de terrain traversé et d'un système hydraulique de tension de chenilles. La tourelle blindée dispose d'un système de stabilisation et d'alimentation automatique. Celle-ci dispose également d'une climatisation, d'un chauffage et de système de filtrations adaptées. Une batterie de Tunguska peut être composée de six véhicules. Ils sont accompagnés de véhicules ravitailleurs assurant la maintenance et le chargement des véhicules.
Variantes :
2S6M : il est équipé de 8 missiles au lieu de quatre




Armement:
Deux canons de 30 mm et 4 ou 8 missiles 2SA19

Pays utilisateurs:
Russie, Inde, Pérou, Géorgie, Ukraine, Biélorussie

Equipage:
4 hommes

Accessoires:
Système de vision nocturne et de protection NBC

Blindage:
Contre les armes de petits calibres et les éclats d'obus.

Poids:
34 000kg

Vitesse:
65 km/h




Citation :
Armement
Un canon fin est placé de chaque côté de la tourelle. A la base des canon, on trouve une rotule qui permet au canon de bouger en élévation. Sur la partie supérieure des canons, on trouve une fine tige horizontale, séparée du canon. A l'extrémité du canon, on trouve un frein de bouche ouvert, composée de fines tiges d'acier, et séparé en trois parties. Deux ou quatre tubes lance-missile sont placés sur chaque flanc de la tourelle, à côté des canons.
Tourelle
est de forme triangulaire, elle est placée au centre de la coque. Sur chaque flanc de la tourelle, on trouve un support pour les missiles, deux pour la version 2S6 et quatre pour la version 2S6M. A l'arrière sur le toit de la tourelle, on trouve un radar qui a une forme rectangulaire, tandis que à l'avant, on trouve un autre radar de forme arrondi. A l'arrière de la tourelle, on trouve une grande trappe d'accès qui s'ouvre vers la droite. Sur le toit de la tourelle, on trouve trois écoutilles.
Coque
est de forme rectangulaire. A l'avant de celle-ci et du côté gauche, on trouve l'emplacement du chauffeur, avec une grande trappe d'accès de forme rectangulairesur la partie frontale. A l'avant gauche et droit de la coque, on trouve un groupe de deux phares avec une protection sur la partie supérieure. Deux autres petite lumières sont placées juste au-dessus de la protection des phares principaux. Les flancs de la coque sont droits, avec trois trappes d'accès sur le flanc gauche, dont deux placées à l'avant et une autre au centre. Sur le flanc droit, on trouve quatre trappes d'accès, une grande de forme rectangulaire à l'avant, une autre plus petite juste derrière, et deux autres placés l'une à côté de l'autre, situées plus vers l'arrière. A l'arrière du flanc gauche, on trouve une grille d'échappement moteur. L'arrière de la coque est droit, avec une porte d'échappement placé du côté droit et qui a une forme de palme. Trois petites lumières placées horizontalement sont montées à gauche et à droitr sur la partie supérieure de la coque.
Châssis
est composé de six roues de route double et de trois galets supports. La roue tendeuse est à l'avant et le barbotin est à l'arrière. La partie supérieure du train de roulement est recouverte par une petite plaque de blindage sur toute la longueur.
Accessoires
A l'avant de coque, est monté un câble de remorquage. Devant l'écoutille du chef de véhicule, est monté un phare à infrarouge.

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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Jeu 29 Oct 2009 - 20:45

Citation :
1. Emplacement du chauffeur à l'avant gauche de la coque, avec une trappe d'accès frontale.
2. Groupe de deux phares avec une plaque de protection sur la partie supérieure.
3. Trois petites trappes d'accès de forme rectangulaire sur le flanc gauche de la coque.
4. Emplacement de quatre (2S6M) ou deux (2S6) missiles sur chaque flanc.
5. Extrémité de chaque canon avec une frein de bouche, monté avec de fines tiges en trois parties.
6. Phare infrarouge monté à l'avant de l'écoutille du chef de véhicule.
7. Bouche d'échappement, placé à l'arrière droit de la coque, elle a une forme de palme.
8. Groupe de trois petites lumières, montées à l'arrière gauche et droit de la coque.
9.Grande trappes d'accès de forme rectangulaire, placée à l'arrière de la tourelle.
10. Grand radar de forme rectangulaire monté à l'arrière du toit de la tourelle.
11. Grille d'échappement à l'arrière gauche de la coque.
12. Sept roues de route double.
13. Un canon fin, placé de chaque côté de la tourelle.
14. Quatre trappes d'accès sur le flanc droit de la coque, une grande à l'avant et trois petites à l'arrière.
15. Grand radar de forme arrondi, monté à l'avant de la tourelle.













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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Jeu 29 Oct 2009 - 20:50

ZSU-23-4
Citation :
Le ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" est un système d'arme anti-aérien auto-propulsé légèrement blindé soviétique, dirigé par radar (SPAAG). ZSU représente Zenitnaya Samokhodnaya Ustanovka, « le système automoteur anti-aérien ». Il est baptisé au nom du fleuve russe de Chilka. Son code OTAN correspondant est "Awl".




Versions

1964: ZSU-23-4: pre-production et modèles de production initiaux.
1968: ZSU-23-4V: modifications mineures.
1972: ZSU-23-4V1: autres modifications mineures.
1977: ZSU-23-4M: un panier de munitions supplémentaires sur l'extérieur de la tourelle (maintenant trois au total), une couverture blindée pour les canons, ordinateur de commande de tir numérisé, radar "Gun Dish" peut fonctionner indépendamment en mode recherche, plutôt que d'être seulement asservi aux canons.



Pays utilisateurs

Abkhazie Afghanistan Algérie Angola Arménie Biélorussie Bulgarie Cuba Égypte Éthiopie Hongrie Inde Iran Irak Jordanie Libye Mali Maroc Mozambique Nigeria Corée du Nord Palestine Pérou Pologne Roumanie Russie Slovaquie Somalie Syrie Ukraine Viêt Nam Yémen RFS Yougoslavie

Caractéristiques générales

Équipage 4
Longueur 6,54 m
Largeur 2,95 m
Hauteur 2,25 m
Masse au combat 20,5 t

Blindage et armement

Blindage protection contre les calibres 8.3-9.2 mm
Armement principal 4x canon automatique AZP-23, refroidis par eau, avec un emport de 2000 obus de 23mm
Armement secondaire néant

Mobilité

Moteur V-6R moteur Diesel 6 cylindres
280 cv
Suspension Barre de torsion
Vitesse sur route 50 km/h sur route
Puissance massique {{{ratio puissance}}}
Autonomie 450 km

Spoiler:
 





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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Jeu 29 Oct 2009 - 20:53

Pantsir
Le Pantsir (en russe: carapace), est un système antiaérien de courte à moyenne portée
Citation :


Le cœur du système est constitué de la tourelle qui porte le radar à antenne à balayage électronique, les canons antiaériens et les conteneurs lance-missiles. Il a d'abord été monté sur un chassis de BMP-2 et ne possédait pas de systèmes aussi évolués que la version actuelle montée sur un chassis à roues KamAz-6350.
On peut citer plusieurs éléments le composant:
Une cabine blindée destinée au contrôle
Une case à équipement également blindée
La tourelle comportant deux canons indépendants de 30mm, quatre blocs de 3 conteneurs et l'équipement radar et optronique également indépendants.


Caractéristiques

Le Pantsir peut faire feu en roulant à vitesse réduite mais est doté de vérins qui le stabilisent pour le tir aux canons. Ceux-ci sont des 2A42M qui équipent également le Tunguska. Les missiles sont des 57É6E d'un poids de 74,5kg au lancement, leurs portée est de 20km et l'altitude de 15 à 15'000m.


En service

La version à roue à passé les essais avec succès et l'armée russe a passé une première commande de 50 systèmes. L'Algérie et la Syrie ont également commandé des Pantsir-S1.



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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Jeu 29 Oct 2009 - 21:00

Le Pantsir S1 (Sa-22)

Citation :
Pantsir S1 Air Defense System
KBP, (Russia)
Pantsir S1 was developed by KBP, as an upgrade of the Tungushka, offering extended engagement capability such as the use of both gun and missile on the move (Tungushka can use only gun), on the tracked system. The system also offers faster reaction time of 4 – 6 seconds (compared to 8 seconds for the Tungushka and 5 – 7 for Pantsir S1O). Like its predecessor, Pantsir S1 can also engage two separate targets simultaneously.

The Pantsir is offered in a tracked, wheeled versions, installed on APCs such as BTR-80and trucks, such as the 8x8 Ural 5323 truck. The truck mounted version is loaded with 700 cartridges per barrel and twelve 57E6-E missiles (also known as 9M335 or the 9M311).

The missile offers high kill probability (0.7 – 0.95) in an expanded envelope with extended range of 1.2 km to 20km, (1.5 – 18 km in Pantsir S1O version) and altitude of 5 m' to 10 km. The guns are designed for operation at a range of 200 m' to 4 km and altitude of 0 to 3,000m'. These missiles use a longer tandem boost motor to reach an altitude of 12,000 m'. The range of the radar was also extended to 30km, with simultaneously tracking of up to 20 targets, and engaging two separated targets at the same time. The launch customer of the Pantsir S1 was the UAE.

The Pantsir S1 uses a multi-band radar with effective ECCM and high immunity to jamming. passive, low band IR target acquisition system, utilize signal processing and automatic target tracking. Pantsir S10 uses only one sensor – probably the passive IR system. The SA-19 missile uses SACLOS guidance, effective to a range of min 2,500 – 8,000 m,. 1RL-144M fire control system uses an E-Band search radar with a detection range of 18km and J band tracking radar. India has procured the system.


Citation :
Is designed for AD of small-size military and industrial objects and areas against aircraft, helicopters, cruise missiles and high-precision weapons, as well as AD groups coverage while repelling mass air threats.

System Distinctive Features:

Combined armament;
" Effective engagement of all target types (foremost high-precision weapons and aviation means of their delivery) within the whole range of their combat application environments and counteraction capabilities, taking into account the prospects of their development till 2020–2025;
Use of sophisticated multi-mode adaptive radar-optical control system, functioning in several wave bands. This provides high jamming immunity and performance reliability;
" Use of high-velocity and maneuverability SAM featuring high kill probability (0.7–0.95) against all target types;
" Automatic combat operation mode - both autonomously and as a part of joint units;
" Independent combat actions due to inherent target detection, tracking and engagement systems;
" Modular design of the combat vehicle, enabling its versions on different carriers-wheeled, tracked and shelter variants.




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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Jeu 29 Oct 2009 - 21:10

S300-PMU2 FAVORIT Sa-20 GARGOYLE
Citation :

Introduction :

Dès les années 70 les autorités soviétiques ont ressentit le besoin d’un nouveau système de défense anti-aérienne, longue portée, mobile intégrant divers systèmes de combat (PC informatisé, radar d’alerte avancé, radar d’acquisition, radar poursuite et de guidage, plusieurs (4 à 6) véhicules porteurs de missiles). Le Favorit fût ainsi développé. Son ultime évolution débuta la phase de test en 1995 et devint opérationnel dès 1999 c’était le S300PMU2.



Le système Favorit est composé de plusieurs éléments qui le rendent redoutable. Ainsi un bataillon de S300PMU2 est constitué :


1. D’un Poste de Commandement comprenant :

Véhicule 54K6E2 informatisé "gros calculateurs", regroupant l’ensemble des informations émanant des divers systèmes détection formant le Favorit (les Radars 76N6 & 64N6E2). Il s’agit là d’un vrai centre radar pouvant coordonner non seulement les actions des autres composantes du bataillon Favorit mais également des systèmes SAM associés tel que les 2S6M1, Pantsir S1 ou TOR-M1 et même des véhicules alliés (Avions, Hélicoptères, drônes...etc) grâce à une liaison data-link sécurisée ou par communication radio cryptée.

D’un radar d’alerte avancée 76N6 : capable de détecter des aéronefs volant à basse altitude au-delà de l’horizon (>400km) en se jouant de la rondité de la terre. Permettant ainsi une mise en œuvre des actions nécessaire afin de contrevenir à toute entreprise hostile.

D’un radar d’acquisition 64N6E2 : (phased array radar) Son rôle après détection des hostiles et de traquer les cibles dans le périmètres d’action du bataillon. Il peut suivre simultanément plus de 200 échos radars sur un périmètre de 300 km. (Incluant avions « furtifs ou non SER > 0.001m² à celle d’une abeille », Hélicoptères, missiles de croisière, bombes guidées et à chute libre, émanation radar et/ou anomalie magnétique au-delà de l’horizon « AWACS »).

2. Jusqu’à 6 systèmes de Missiles comprenant chacun :


Un système d’acquisition 30N6E2 « composés de plusieurs véhicules voir schéma ci-dessous » associé à chaque batterie de missiles (6 véhicules 5P85SE porteur de missiles 48N6E2 + ou porteurs de missiles 48N6E ). Son rôle est d’assurer l’acquisition, l’illumination des cibles attribué par le PC, ainsi que le guidage des missiles des batteries associées. Pouvant traquer jusqu’à 32 cibles et guider 72 missiles vers ces cibles de 2 à plus de 200km.


6 à 12 véhicules 5P85SE porteur de missiles 48N6E2 (ou plusieurs véhicules porteurs de missiles 48N6E). Transportant chacun 4 missiles à haute vélocité de diverses tailles pouvant prendre en charge les cibles selon leurs tailles et leur éloignement par rapport à la batterie (cf. image ci-dessous des différents missiles)


3. La résistance au brouillage est assurée par la multiplicité des systèmes radars et de leur puissance de calcul phénoménale. Aucun système (aéroporté) actuel ou en développement ne peut fournir assez de puissance pour leurrer une telle panoplie de systèmes de détection.



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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Jeu 29 Oct 2009 - 21:11

S-300 VM
Citation :
The S-300VM "Antey-2500" (NATO reporting name SA-23 Gladiator\Giant) is a new Russian anti-ballistic missile system.
It is designed to defeat short- and medium-range ballistic missiles with a launch range of up to 2,500 km, aeroballistic and cruise missiles, strategic and tactical aircraft, as well as loitering ECM platforms and highprecision weapon systems in multiple air threat conditions, a complex air situation and severe ECM environment.
The 9M82M missile is intended to defeat tactical, theater and medium range ballistic missiles, as well as aerodynamic targets at a range of up to 200 km. The missile is controlled throughout the entire flight trajectory. The 9M83M missile is intended to engage tactical and theater missiles as well as aerodinamic targets at short and medium ranges. The Antey-2500 system is mounted on tracked cross-country vehicles provided with self-contained power supply and navigation systems, surveying and positioning equipment.
The Antey-2500 air defense missile system features:

high degree of battle performance automation owing to high-speed digital computers;
phased array radars;
advanced radar data processing methods;
high ECM immunity;
high ability of autonomous operation;
high mobility;
high fire power potential, irrespective of air attack tactics or sequence;
vertical launch from a special transport launch canister;
maintenance-free operation of missiles for at least ten years;
capability to defeat ballistic missile individual warheads flying at speeds of up to 4,500 m/s;
inertial guidance with radio command update and semiactive homing at the terminal phase;
focused detonation of the missile warhead.

The Antey-2500 system comprises:

command post;
circular scan radar;
sector scan radar;
multichannel missile guidance station (MMGS) (4);
9A83M launcher (24);
9A84M loader-launcher (24);
9M82M air defense missiles;
9M83M air defense missiles;
maintenance vehicles;
maintenance and repair vehicles;
group SPTA set;
electronic trainer for MMGS operators;
transporter vehicles;
set of missiles handling equipment.


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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Jeu 29 Oct 2009 - 21:13

S-400 Triumph

Citation :
Le S-400 Triumph est un système de défense antiaérienne et antimissile mobile russe, développé par la société Almaz-Antei. Sa désignation OTAN est SA-21 Growler.
Le S-400 Triumph (Triomphe en russe) est la version évolué du système S-300P qui s'en différencie par l'adoption de systèmes modernisés. Le radar serait capable d'accrocher 36 cibles et de contrôler jusqu'à 72 missiles.
Le S-400 inclut:

Un poste de commandement mobile
Jusqu'à 8 véhicules de lancement
Plusieurs types de missiles
Système de maintenance de l'installation de tir
Système de maintenance des missiles

Citation :
The development of the S-400 system began in the late 1990s. The system was formally announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1999. On 12 February 1999, the first tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan which was reportedly successful. As a result of this, the S-400 was scheduled for deployment in the Russian army in 2001.
In that same year, the project started encountering delays due to unclear reasons. In 2003 it first became apparent that the system was ready for deployment, but in August two high ranking military officials expressed concernsthat the S-400 was being tested using 'obsolete' interceptors from the S-300P and concluded that it was not ready for production.
Finally the completion of the project was announced in February 2004. In April, a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM interceptor missile.

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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Jeu 29 Oct 2009 - 21:19

The S-500 is a Russian surface-to-air missile system, currently under development by the Almaz-Antey company.
Citation :

The S-500 is a new generation surface-to-air missile system, designed for intercepting short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles with ranges up to 3,500 km (2,175 mi) and for defense against Airborne Early Warning and Control, Airborne Warning and Control System, and jamming aircraft. It is an upgraded version of the S-400. With a planned range of 600 km (373 mi), the S-500 will be able to detect and simultaneously engage up to 10 ballistic supersonic targets flying at a speed of 5 km/s.[2][3]
As of 2009, the system is currently under design stage development at Almaz-Antey, and is planned to be completed in 2012.[4] There is also a version of the system called S-1000, but it is not known what the difference between the two versions is.[1]
S-500 will reportedly be able to outperform both the S-400 as well as the U.S. Patriot Advanced Capability-3 system.[4]
Although sharing a similar designation, the relationship between this new S-500 and the S-500U project of the 1960s is unclear. The S-500U multichannel antiaircraft system was a 1968 initiative by the Soviet Air Defence Forces, Soviet Navy, Ministry of the Radio Industry and Ministry of the Shipbuilding Industry to create a unified complex for the National Air Defense Troops, Navy and Ground Troops. Missiles of the S-500U complex were supposed to engage enemy aircraft at a range up to 100 km. The S-500U SAM complex project was rejected by the Red Army, which had a requirement to engage not only enemy aircraft, but also short range ballistic missiles. Consequently the S-300 family, SA-10 and SA-12, was developed instead.

Citation :
ASTRAKHAN, 16 septembre - RIA Novosti. La Russie créera bientôt le système de défense antiaérienne S-500, a annoncé mercredi à Astrakhan le général Alexandre Zelin, commandant en chef de l'Armée de l'air russe.

"Les travaux de recherche sont en cours. Je considère que nous créerons prochainement ces missiles", a indiqué le général lors d'une réunion du comité de coordination auprès du Conseil des ministres de la Défense de la CEI.

Les missiles sol-air S-500 sont destinés à remplacer les S-400 Triumph. La conception des nouveaux missiles est confiée au bureau d'études Almaz-Antei, auteur des S-400.

Les systèmes S-400 Triumph permettent d'organiser la défense échelonnée des sites contre une attaque aérienne massive. La vitesse des missiles atteint 4.800 mètres seconde et leur rayon d'action est de 400 km à une altitude de 30 km. En outre la portée minimum est de 2 km à une altitude de 100 m. Ils peuvent être mis en position de combat en l'espace de 5-10 mn.
source :: novosti

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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Ven 30 Oct 2009 - 0:33

Excellent travail yuki Like a Star @ heaven
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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Ven 30 Oct 2009 - 0:45

une video qui illustre les différents systèmes de DCA proposés par Almaz-Antey

ici la video

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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Ven 6 Nov 2009 - 20:26

NIIP 9K37/9K37M1/9K317 Buk M1/M2





Citation :

Description :


The Buk-M1 is a road mobile, medium range Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) system designed to engage aircraft, helicopters and cruise missiles in intense clutter and jamming environment. High Speed Anti-Radiation missiles and theater ballistic missiles can also be engaged by Buk-M1 air defense system.


The Buk-M1 consists of a 54K6E command post vehicle, a target acquisition radar mounted on a tracked vehicle, and up to 6 loader-launcher vehicles designated the 9A39M1 carrying 4 9M38 missiles. The entire system can be ready to fire in just 5 minutes. It can engage up to 6 targets simultaneously.


The Buk-M1 road mobile air defense system entered service in 1979 replacing the SA-6 Gainful. It overcomes some of the most important shortfalls detected on the Gainful SAM system.


Citation :

specifications:


Weights: Weight 35,000 kg (77,160 lb)


Performance: SetUp Time 5 min, Target's Max Altitude 25,000 m (82,021 ft), Target's Max Speed Mach 4 (4,780 kph), Weapon Max Range 42,000 m (137,795 ft)


Other: Engaged Aerial Targets 6


Citation :

Radar :



The 9K37 utilises the 9S18M/M1 "Tube Arm"/9S18M1 "Snow Drift" surveillance radar in combination with the 9S470/9S470M1 "Fire Dome" H/I-band tracking and engagement radar which is mounted on each TELAR. The "Snow Drift" surveillance radar has a maximum detection range of 85 km (53 miles) and can detect an aircraft flying at 100 m (330 ft) from 35 km (22 miles) away and even lower flying targets at ranges of around 10-20 km (6-12 miles). "Snow Drift" is mounted on a chassis similar to that of the TELARs. "Fire Dome" is a monopulse type radar and can begin tracking at the missile's maximum range (32 km/20 miles) and can track aircraft flying at between 15-22000m (50-72,000 ft) altitudes. It can guide up to three missiles against a single target. The 9K37 system supposedly has much better ECCM characteristics (i.e. is more resistant to ECM/jamming) than the 3M9 "Kub" (SA-6) system that it replaces. An optical tracking system with laser rangefinder is not standard but can be fitted.


The 9K37 system can also utilise the same 1S91 "Straight Flush" 25kW G/H-band continuous-wave radar as the 3M9 "Kub" (SA-6) system.


The control post which coordinates communications between the surveillance radar(s) and the launchers is able to communicate with up to six TELs at once.


The SA-N-7 naval version utilises the MR-750 "Top Steer" D/E-band surveillance radar with a maximum detection range of 300 km (186 miles) and the 3R90 "Front Dome" H/I-band tracking and engagement radar with a maximum range of 30 km (19 miles).


Citation :

Novator 9M37-1/9M38/9M38M1 and DNPP 9M317E Surface to Air Missile
The Novator 9M37-1/9M38/9M38M1 Gadfly and DNPP 9M317E Grizzly missiles are direct equivalents in basic design to the US Raytheon RIM-66 Standard family of naval missiles. The Russian missiles are slightly larger, by 17% in length and in diameter, with all missiles within ~3% of each other in launch weight. Range performance of the Russian missiles is similar to the RIM-66B, and lesser than the RIM-66C, although this may in part reflect control laws employed. The 9M317E Grizzly missile employs a very different, higher span and shorter chord configuration, cruciform wing design compared to the earlier missiles.


As this weapon remains in production, detailed materials on its internal configuration and design features are generally scarce.


The nose of the missile mounts the monopulse semiactive radar homing seeker under a dielectric radome. In the 9M37-1 missile the seeker is a 9E47 Virazh, in the 9M37M a 9E47M, the 9M38 a 9E50, and the 9M38M1 a 9E50M1. The new 9M317 missile uses the digital 9E420 seeker. The antenna configuration of the latter appears virtually identical to the 1SB4M seeker in the late model 3M9M3 Gainful missile.


Agat have also offered the ARGS Slanets monopulse active radar homing  seeker for all Buk family missiles. This 35 kg digital design has a 270 mm diameter planar array aperture and is claimed to be capable of acquiring a 5 m2 target at 70 km [Agat Missile Seekers].


Details of the missile proximity fuses and warheads, datalinks, autopilots and solid rocket motors have not been disclosed to date.



 



 


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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Ven 6 Nov 2009 - 20:49




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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Sam 14 Nov 2009 - 2:16



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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Sam 14 Nov 2009 - 2:22

Citation :
TOR-M2/TOR-M2E ("E" pour désigner la version export)


The Tor-M2 is an upgraded version of the Tor-M1 short-range air defense missile system (ADMS). It can engage fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, cruise missiles, high-precision air-to-surface weapons and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) flying from extremely low to medium altitude in heavy clutter environments. The Tor-M2 doubles the number of targets that can be engaged simultaneously by a single combat vehicle to four. Besides, the upgraded ADMS can destroy the airborne platforms carrying guided air-to-surface weapons and the very weapons.
specifications:
Accommodation: Crew 3

Dimensions: Height 5.1 m, Length 7.5 m, Width 3.3 m

Weights: Max Weight 34,000 kg (74,956 lb)

Performance: Max Range 500 km (270 nm), Top Speed 65 kph (40 mph), Weapon Max Range 12,000 m (39,370 ft)

Other: Engaged Aerial Targets 4





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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Sam 14 Nov 2009 - 22:43

Citation :
Il y a une version navale du Tor de base, le 3K95 Kinzhal/Klinok (code OTAN: SA-N-9 Gauntlet), la version naval du Tor M1 s'appelle Yozh.
Il équipe la Kuznetsov, les Kirov, les Udaloy et les Neustrashimy, la version export est appelé Klinok.

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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Dim 21 Fév 2010 - 12:21

Kvadrat Sa-6
et PantsyrS1 Sa-22
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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Mar 18 Mai 2010 - 3:21

Pantsyr-S destinés en premier a proteger les S-300/400


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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Mer 14 Juil 2010 - 15:52

terrefic jad thanks
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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Jeu 15 Juil 2010 - 10:56

Video Exercice TOR M1 Cool


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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Ven 16 Juil 2010 - 9:52

good object thank you
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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Jeu 26 Aoû 2010 - 6:33

Citation :
HOT SHOT radar system
The SA-19 (tunguska) is supported by the HOT SHOT radar system, which consists of a surveillance radar with a maximum range of 18 km, and a tracking radar with a maximum range of 13 km. The semi-automatic radar to command line-of-sight engagement requires the gunner to track the target using the roof-mounted stabilized optical sight.

The integrated fire-control system of the 2S6M incorporates the following components:

Target acquisition radar (TAR) (1RL144), operating in the E-band, with a max. range of 20 km.
Target tracking radar (TTR) (1RL144M), operating in the J-band, with a max. range of 18 km.
IFF system (1RL138), operating in C-and D-band.
Direct-view Optics (DVO).
Fire-control computer.
The Target acquisition radar (TAR) (1RL144) antenna is mounted at the rear of the turret and is folded down when not in use. This radar provides primary search capability in addition to measurement of range and bearing. This radar can detect targets out to maximum range of approximately 20 km. It is a coherent system that has sufficient accuracy to permit its use as a range back up for fire-control purposes. The TAR emits a fan beam covering 4.50 in azimuth and 150 in elevation. The beam is pointed at a constant elevation of 7.50 to permit detection of low-altitude targets. The antenna rotates at approximately 1 r/s, which gives a rapid update of the airspace around the 2S6M. The choice of a frequency in the E-band for the TAR is an advantage since there is low attenuation in inclement weather (rain, snow, and fog) at this frequency and therefore the acquisition radar is not degraded in such conditions.

The Target tracking radar (TTR) (1RL144M) antenna is mounted at the front section of the turret and has two fundamental functions that depend on whether the guns or missiles are selected. The tracking radar constantly relays target range, elevation and bearing to the fire-control computer, and on the basis if these data the computer generated the laying commands for the weapon system. A stabilized optical sight is used as a back up tracking channel, allowing target data to be relayed to the fire-control computer. This sight is also used to calculate the deviation of a missile's flight path from the line-of-sight, these data being automatically relayed to the fire control computer and used to generate correction signals. During a gun engagement, the TTR functions as an automatic target tracker, feeding target position data to the fire-control computer. During missile engagement, the tracking radar locks onto the target and then lays the optical sight on the target. Subsequently the gunner assumes the target-tracking function with the electro-optic sight, and the radar is used for relaying guidance commands to the SA-19 missile. The tracking radar emits pulse-position-modulated codes for missile guidance. The TTR is a two-channel monopulse design featuring an MTI processor and a digital range-tracking system. The tracking radar is generally cued with coarse range and angle data from the TAR. Alternatively, the targeting information can be passed by means of the command and control network.
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/hot-shot.htm

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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Dim 5 Fév 2012 - 20:29

Le Pantsir-S1 à la loupe :


(reported from russia defence / ARMs 2011 Pages 20-26)
PANTSIR-S1 AIR-DEFENCE MISSILE GUN SYSTEM
Author: Igor Stepanichev, Valery Slugin - Igor Stepanichev, acting director general of KBP Instrument Design Bureau
Valery Slugin, general designer of discipline / section chief.




Citation :




The Pantsir-S1 air- defence missile gun system (ADMGS) is the natural evolution of the Tunguska system designed in Tula by KBP instrument Design Bureau and put into service in 1982. The performance capabilities of air attack platforms changed drastically since the Tunguska system was put into service with the Soviet Armed Forces. There have emerged small size unmanned aerial vehicles, low altitude high precision cruise missiles and remotely guided combat and reconnaissance aerial vehicles featuring extremely low optical, radar and IR signature. Flight speed of some targets increased up to 1000 m/s. Missile armament of the Tunguska ADMGS intended for engagement of large manned aircraft turned out to be ineffective when countering new threats.

The Pantsir-S1 ADMGS was developed to fundamentally change the system's performance capabilities in terms of interception zones, reduction of time required for operation, capability to engage all types of targets and broader use of missile armament.

Outcome of the modern military conflicts (Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Iraq) was to great extent determined by concentrated air strikes effected against the most important military and economic assets into the depth of the countries' territory.

Analysis of the said conflicts revealed that all air raids commence with suppression of the enemy's air defence by concentrated air attacks with the use of precision-guided weapons like Harm (ARM), cruise missiles like Tomahawk and guided aircraft bombs like GBU-15 and GBU-16.

A large number of drones may be flying above the objects under attack for adjustment of target coordinates and assessment of air raid efficiency

The system features:

• multitarget capability, i.e. engagement of virtually all types of aerial targets, primarily all types of precision-guided munitions approaching an object under defence at a speed of up to 1000 m/s from different directions, aircraft flying at a speed of up to 500 m/s, helicopters, UAV, as well as lightly armoured ground targets and enemy's manpower;

• combined missile and gun armament ensuring continuous impact area and continuous firing starting from a distance of 18-20 km to 200 m from targets at altitudes of 10 m to 15 km;

• multimode adaptive radar and optical weapon control system operating in UHF, EHF and IR wavebands, this ensuring high jamming immunity and survivability under electronic countermeasures and suppression by fire with the use of ECM means and HARM missiles, and high reliability of the system operation;

• high target engagement rate due to short reaction time, high speed missiles and availability of multi channel control system operating in wide sector;

• the use of high precision command missile guidance system allowed development of a small size and high maneuverability surface-to-air missile (SAM) featuring high efficiency and low cost;

• large number of missiles in one combat vehicle (12 pcs.);

• small size two-stage bi-caliber SAM with solid fuel booster ensuring high average speed, maneuverability and efficient engagement of all types of targets due to high lethality fragmentation rod warhead and high precision SAM guidance system;

• firing against a receding target ensures double increase of impact depth and the systems performance capabilities when used against manned aircraft, UAV, strategic cruise missiles and tactical cruise missiles;

• firing missiles on the move extends the system's combat application;

• fully automatic combat operation mode both as a stand-alone unit and within a battery consisting of several combat vehicles, this allowing to reduce psychophysical stress to crew members;

• independent combat use due to availability of means of detection, tracking and engagement in one combat vehicle;

• modular design of combat vehicle and system as a whole allows various modifications based on the basic system.

during an air attack. Moreover, sabotage groups airdropped in soft-skinned and lightly-armoured vehicles may break through to important objects under defence.

Therefore, SHORAD systems are also intended to engage drones, light combat vehicles and enemy's manpower in area of the defended objects.

Large number of targets and high density of air attacks require air defence assets to ensure high target engagement rate, as well as to possess a numerous ready-to-fire and quickly replenishable ammunition load.

Because of their high price the long range air-defence systems may not be available in sufficient quantity to ensure direct defence of a large number of small size and pin-point military and economic objects with a radius of 1.5-3.0 km which amount to minim of 70% of all the objects to be defended. Besides, the long range air-defence systems can not make use of their capabilities in short range and when used against low altitude targets in difficult terrain.

SHORAD systems with maximum firing range of 15-20 km play an important part in air defence. Systems of this class significantly outperform the long range systems in terms of cost efficiency.

The Pantsir-S1 SHORAD system (see the photo of the combat vehicle in Fig.1) designed at KBP Instrument Design Bureau (KBP) is intended for air defence of important small size and pin-point military and industrial objects, infantry units and tactical formations as well as for reinforcement of air defence groups at low and extremely low altitudes when countering concentrated air strikes effected with the use of precision-guided weapons.

Table 1 describes the main performance specifications of the Pantsir-S1 combat vehicle.

The mobile version of the Pantsir-S1 system includes: combat vehicles (up to 6 CV in one battery), surface-to-air missiles, 30mm rounds, transporter-loader vehicles (one loader per two CV), maintenance equipment and training equipment.

The combat vehicle is intended to perform the tasks assigned to the system in terms of engagement of a wide range of aerodynamic and ground targets including those lightly armoured and enemy's manpower.

Configuration of the system CV is described in Fig.2.

As seen in the figure the CV features modular design:

• control module accommodating CV crew;

• weapons module;

• turret mount;

• power supply system compartment (PSS).

The modular design allows various system configurations including stationary variant.

Various configurations of Pantsir-S1 AD system are shown in Fig. 3.

The system may be mounted on lightly armoured vehicles providing powerful and mobile air-defense asset for airborne assault troops, as well as on wheeled and tracked chassis for Air/Land Forces air-defense units or Navy vessels.

The information assets of the air-defense system include target search radar (TSR), target/missile tracking radar (TTR) and optical/electronic system (OES).

Make-up of the TSR is shown in Fig. 4.

TSR provides automatic tracking of up to 20 targets, submitting three coordinates and radial velocity component for each target into CV central computer. Besides that TSR identifies friendly/enemy targets and target types (plane, helicopter, small-size target), thus increasing the system kill probability.

High combat performance of Pantsir-S1 AD system is guaranteed substantially due to employment of multi-functional target tracking radar (TTR) featuring phased antenna array (PAA). The make-up of the TTR is shown in Fig. 5.

The TTR incorporates two stations one of which is a receive-only terminal intended for SAM beacon signal perception by few-element phased antenna array (PAA), the latter measuring three coordinates of SAM and employed for missile gathering into main radar pattern. The second multi-element PAA station is a transmitting-receiving antenna irradiating both SAM and target with the following specifications:

• coordinates determination accuracy:

- in azimuth, mrad - 0.2

- in elevation, mrad - 0.2

- in range, m - 3.0

- in velocity, m/sec - 2.0

• simultaneous automatic tracking:

- targets - up to 3

- missiles - up to 4

- maximum target detection range, RCS 2 m2, km - 24

- operating band - K




Employment of PAA allows for implementation of three firing channels for three targets in all-weather radar mode, thus, the most critical target may be engaged with 2 SAM salvo. Besides, by means of the PAA gathering, the TTR provides radar acquisition and SAM gathering from the dispersion area of the first unguided stage of the missile flight into precise guidance channel of the main PAA. Employment of radar gathering allows for significant improvement of the missile flight performance due to application of high-energy composite propellant booster.

Along with target angular coordinates and range tracking the TTR also measures three coordinates of the SAM (two angles and range) based of the SAM beacon signals and transmits guidance commands to SAM.

The TTR operates in HF wave band providing for high precision of angular coordinates measurement and low-altitude targets handling.

Firing against ground targets and extremely low-altitude targets employs optical\electronic system (OES) of target and missile tracking. The make-up of the OES is shown in Fig. 6.

The OES is integrated into autonomous optical post (AOP) intended for laying the OES optical axes according to the signals received from the central computer within the following angular range:

CV main features:

• independent combat operation;

• combined missile and gun armament;

• multimode jamming resistant radar optical guidance system;

• all-weather capability;

• automatic combat operation mode;

• simultaneous firing against four targets;

• coordination of actions within the battery;

• armour protection of the crew against bullets and splinters.





• in azimuth, degr. - ± 90

• in elevation, degr. - from - 5 to + 82 OES provides final targeting

according to the target designation received from CC and automatic target acquisition as well. Target tracking is conducted in 3 -5 ƒm IR range and provides round-the-clock application of missile armament in optical operation mode. Automatic tracking range (with weather visibility range of 10 km) is as follows:

• F-16 aircraft, km - 17.0 - 26.0

• ARM "Harm", km - 13.0 - 15.0

• CM ALCM, km - 11.0 - 14.0

SAM sighting is conducted in close IR range spectrum (0,8 µm), the missile sustainer stage is sighted by the SAM optical responder pulse signals providing high jamming immunity of the channel from thermal dummy targets.

Narrow fields of view of the optical channels and high accuracy of the AOP gearless engine drives ensure measuring of the target and missile angular coordinates no worse than 0.05 mrad in azimuth and elevation channels.

Systematic errors of the missile and target channels of the OES are eliminated during the SAM launch while the process of automatic cross adjustment of the missile and target localizers is running.

Accurate measurement of the missile angular deviations from the target line-of-sight ensures high-precision missile guidance at a target in the optical mode of the control system. Optical mode provides missile firing against targets flying at extremely low altitudes (at a 5m altitude above water surface) and against ground targets.

This combat vehicle equipment makes its stand-alone operation possible. Availability of the hardware with digital communication channels enables Pantsir-S1 system to conduct battery operation in different modes:

• stand-alone combat operation;

• joint operation with command post;

• battery operation in master-slave mode;

• battery operation jointly with command post and long-range radar.

Different modes of Pantsir-S1 operation are shown in the Fig.7

Main features of the control system:

• simultaneous firing against four targets flying in the ±45° sector owing to the use of the multifunctional tracking radar incorporating the EHF-band phased antenna array and independent optical channel;

• high immunity to any type of jamming owing to integration of the radar and optical-electronic means into the single system which is able to function in dm-, mm-, and IR wave bands;

• capability of salvo firing by two missiles against one target owing to the use of the target tracking radar (TTR);

• short reaction time within 4 - 6 sec. owing to the automatic tracking of up to

The Pantsir-S1 ADMGS was developed to fundamentally change the system's performance capabilities in terms of interception zones, reduction of time required for operation, capability to engage all types of targets and broader use of missile armament.



20 targets by the target search radar (TSR) and target designating with an accuracy ensuring fast final targeting and target acquisition by TTR and optical-electronic system (OES);

• computation of informative characteristics including target motion rate and target characteristics, selection of weapon type and assigning firing mode;

• realization of a complete combat operation cycle - from targets searching to their destruction in automatic mode;

• crew combat operation semiautomatic mode capability.

The two-stage air-defense guided missile 57E6-E (Fig.8 )

The gun armament consists of two 2A38M double-barrel AA automatic guns adopted from the Tunguska-M1 weapon system. They are capable to engage air and ground-based targets in a zone of up to 4 km in range and of up to 3 km in altitude.



High performance characteristics of the air-defense missile-gun system Pantsir-S1 ensure great advantage over foreign countries short-range AD systems for the AD systems supplied with Pantsir-S1.




Purpose:

• target designation reception, fine search, automatic target acquisition and tracking:

- trajectory tracking- up to 8

- priority targets - up to 3

• post-launch automatic acquisition and tracking of up to 4 SAM

• encoding and transmission of guidance commands to the tracked SAMs

Features:

• main transmitting\receiving antenna with multielement feed-through mm-band PAA ensuring high-precision target and SAM tracking

• gathering phased-array receive-only antenna ensuring acquisition and gathering of SAM into main array

Azimuth coverage zone, degr...........................................±45

(360° subject to turret rotation)

Elevation coverage, degr...........................................-5 to +85

Maximum target tracking range, km:

- RCS=2m2 .........................................................24

- RCS=0.03m2........................................................7

Fine search area following TSR target designation

in 1 sec. with 0.9 probability:

- In azimuth, degr...................................................±2.5

- In elevation, degr..................................................±2.5

- In range, m......................................................±200

Target coordinates measurement precision:

- azimuth/elevation, mrad............................................0.2/0.2

- range, m .........................................................3.0

- velocity, m/sec......................................................2

Radial velocity measurement range, m/sec

-target......................................................10 to 1000

-SAM ......................................................30 to 2100

Simultaneous tracking:

- targets........................................................up to 3

- SAMs ........................................................up to 4

Operating band.......................................................K

Characteristic features:

- short flight time on the launch trajectory (t - 2.4s, Vmax = 1300m/s);

- high maneuverability after booster separation;

- low ballistic deceleration during booster-free flight (decrease of speed of 40 m/s over 1km);

- extended engagement envelope of 20km in range and 15 km in altitude;

- heavy weight of the warhead (20kg) at missile's low launch weight (75.7 kg)








Source principale : http://issuu.com/alexgood/docs/arms_5_2011


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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Jeu 15 Mar 2012 - 13:44

Citation :


Is American Air Power on the Verge of Collapse?

The Australian think-tank, Air Power Australia (APA), has released another in their series of techno-strategy papers, this time analysing the advancements in Russian-built Integrated Air Defense Systems (IADS) (http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-2009-02.html), and what it means in global strategic terms for the Americans. The APA report is direct and unequivocal – Russian radar and missiles have improved to the point where the US fleet of F-15s, F-16s and F/A-18s, as well as the planned Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), are not capable of surviving against these systems and unless the Americans build another four hundred-plus F-22s, they will lose the strategic advantage they have held since the end of the Cold War.

The result will be nations such as China, Iran and Venezuela thumbing their noses at the Americans, knowing that no President will commit to using force in the knowledge that hundreds of jets and pilots would be lost.

The paper comes a month after APA savaged the JSF (http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-2009-01.html). APA’s Dr. Carlo Kopp, who completed his PhD in radar engineering, simulated the radar signature of the F-35 and showed exactly how vulnerable it will be to the Russian radar systems and missiles that have emerged since the specification for the JSF was drafted over a decade ago. Lockheed-Martin has not publicly disputed Kopp’s findings yet.

The APA IADS study confirms, in tedious detail, what many of us have suspected or known for some time and what U.S. Air Force generals said repeatedly before being forcefully muzzled by the Bush Administration. That is the simple fact that the globalised economy has given Russian radar and missile designers the technology to close the gap with the US and EU designers in most areas which matter. The Russians have used this technology to digitize many Cold War missile and radar designs, and vastly improve post-Cold War designs. The new S-400 has no equivalent in the West, having outstripped and outgrown the Patriot.

The Russians obviously spent a lot of time thinking about how the Americans busted the Iraqi IADS in 1991 and the Serbian IADS in 1999. Like chess players, they looked at what the Americans used, where they were going, and figured out how to checkmate the mighty US Air Force.

Russian industry is now building and marketing short-range missile systems specifically built to shoot down American HARM anti-radar missiles and cruise missiles. They are also putting electronic countermeasures and decoys on their radars to prevent missiles and smart bombs from hitting them. Further, the Russians are currently testing a 400 km range missile, the 40N6, so they can shoot down or drive off American jamming aircraft like the Prowler, Growler and Compass Call. These same missiles can be used to keep the Rivet Joint and AWACS electronic reconnaissance systems out of useful range.

In strategic terms, the Americans are now in real trouble. China is fielding around 500 Russian Flankers and the latest Russian IADS. Iran is fielding the SA-20, and already has the SA-5, upgraded Chinese SA-2s and, some people claim, the HQ-9s – cloned SA-20s. Further, the US aerial tanker fleet is 40-years-old, and the fighter fleet was mostly built twenty-five years ago – many of the F-15s are now older than the pilots flying them. Iraq and Afghanistan have bankrupted the U.S. defence budget and now Wall Street has bankrupted the U.S. economy.

The only modern and credible fighter the Americans have is the F-22, and it is the only way they can recapitalise their collapsing fighter fleet in the next decade, with an aircraft which can actually survive the first day of an air war. The F-35 is not an F-22 and can never become an F-22. The F-35 is, first and foremost, an export fighter program.

We should not mislead ourselves about the seriousness of this matter. Leading American analyst Dr. Richard Hallion, in a recent interview commented: “Today, if NATO wanted to establish an air exclusion zone over Georgia, it could not do so with any aircraft other than the 5th Generation F-22 Raptor...”.

Who is most to blame for American air power now teetering on the edge of collapse?

Clearly it has been the Bush Administration, who considered the EU fighter industry a more important enemy to kill than exported Russian Sukhoi fighters and Almaz SAM systems. Rather than sticking with the conservative US Air Force plan for 700+ F-22s, they chopped the number down to 180 aircraft. Why? To force every American service and every American ally to buy into the F-35 monopoly.
Where does this leave us Europeans? We have, since the start of the Cold War, depended on the Americans to provide the fighter top cover, the SAM suppression and the standoff radar jamming none of us were prepared to fund. We, much like the Americans, overindulged in the peace dividend and downsized several times over.
The mighty collective NATO air forces are now a pale shadow of what they were in 1989.

If the Obama Administration decides to follow the Bush Administration policy to terminate F-22 production, the strategic consequences will be just as grave for America’s NATO allies as they will be for America.


http://defpro.com/daily/details/236/

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yassine1985
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MessageSujet: Re: systèmes DCA russes   Sam 24 Mar 2012 - 13:11

Pas trouvé mieux comme endroit :

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In an interview with the Voice of Russia broadcast on Friday, Dani, who retired in 2004 and now owns a small bakery outside Belgrade, elaborated on the March 27 events:

“At about 18:00 local time, we were ordered to turn on the system. We checked out the functionality of the missile defense system, reporting that the 3rd battery was on combat alert. After 20:00, a NATO airstrike began which prompted us to turn on the radar that tracked down an approaching target. We asked the mission control center to act against this aircraft, and at 20:41 we got the go-ahead. At 20:42, the target was destroyed. It took us 18 seconds to do so.”

How did you manage to spot the stealth fighter?

To that end, we used the Soviet-made P18 meter band radar which is capable of tracking any warplane irrespective of the configuration of its fuselage. The radar started to emit and we discovered a target at a distance of 15 kilometers – something that our operators were distinctly seeing on a display. I was quick to order the launch of a missile which destroyed the target.

You mean that you managed to shoot down the sophisticated aircraft with the help of the vintage S-125Neva anti-aircraft system?

I don’t quite agree with you. Of course, Russia has more advanced missile defense systems, but I proceed from the assumption that a cat’s color does not contribute to its ability to catch mice. At the time, the S-125Neva was believed to be a rather advanced system, and we had no other systems to tackle NATO airstrikes.

Is it true that you subsequently got acquainted with a pilot of the downed F-117?

I only want to say that a relevant documentary, the Second Meeting, is due to be released before the end of this year. It took us almost four years to meet – an occasion that was held in a positive atmosphere and that helped us to bolster our communication which is still under way. Our project aims to hammer home how important world peace and family values are…


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